Gender Studies

MULTI-SECTORAL APPROACHES TOWARDS THE REALIZATION OF UNITED NATIONS’ SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS ON WOMEN ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT IN MANILA CITY

The promotion of gender equality and women empowerment, as one of the goals of the UN Sustainable Development Goals, is perceived as essential in achieving all of the other goals. In the Philippines, Manila City, being the country’s capital and center of economic opportunities, is giving paramount importance to gender equality. This research aims to identify the Multisectoral Approaches Towards the Realization of the UN Sustainable Development Goals on Women Economic Empowerment in Manila City. The research utilizes descriptive and qualitative approach and experts involved in strengthening women economic empowerment were interviewed and findings revealed that women of Manila City were empowered and given equal, or to some extent, even greater opportunities than men. Moreover, the LGUs were able to conduct costly programs, projects, and activities because they are supported financially, unlike the NGOs, which catered less expensive but educational approaches. Similarly, the accomplishment of empowering women economically is congruent to the Liberal Feminist framework, which is to deliver knowledge and raise women’s awareness of their rights. Nevertheless, lobbying the support from the concerned agencies is an important move towards the greater mobilization and advancement of programs, projects and activities on women. Hence, the goal of promoting women economic empowerment in Manila City must not be stopped. Albeit the respondents have made significant actions towards enhancing the lives of women, the most critical challenge is not by achieving Sustainable Development Goal No. 5, rather, the consistency and sustainability in promoting women empowerment even after 2030.

VIGNETTES OF THE SEXUALLY MARGINALIZED: THE EXPERIENCES OF OPENLY GAY AND LESBIAN STUDENTS IN COLEGIO DE SAN JUAN DE LETRAN, MANILA

As a safe space for learning and personal development, the school must be open and accommodating to every student regardless of their personal life decisions. However, the institution cannot control the student-student and professor-student dynamics that are happening every day, especially when viewed from the perspective of the marginalized gender, primarily the LGBT students. Cases such as bullying of heterosexual students and unconsciously exposing the student to double standards of faculty members were reported by openly gay and lesbian students, therefore affecting their academic performance. Furthermore, the experiences of the LGBT students may serve as a clue as to how improvement in instruction can be attained in the Colegio de San Juan de Letran, Manila. Through a case study/life history methodology, vignettes of the sexually marginalized in the Colegio will be put into focus and will be a useful tool for analysis of student development, both academically and emotionally.

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE: THE GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM IN BARANGAY BASAK SAN NICOLAS, CEBU CITY

Good local governance connotes gender equality and women empowerment. This study focused on how local government uplifts the morale of the women constituents. Also, this study identified the gender-related concerns in the local government and the programs and projects in the local government towards women empowerment. The researcher anchors this study on the CIPP model of Daniel Stufflebeam (1983) to view and evaluate the programs developed by the local government and their decision-making process. This study employs a descriptive qualitative design and analysis of secondary data. The selected local government is Barangay Basak San Nicolas in Cebu City. The GAD programs have its essentials in providing the way to configure an integral part of policy research that will be focusing on policy shaping communities and necessitating potential political accommodation. The barangay could work hand in hand with other NGOs. There must be a cross-sectoral strategy between the GAD officers and NGOs. Building more networks could possibly help the GAD programs in the barangay.

RAISE YOUR FLAG: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE COMING OUT JOURNEY OF LGBTQI YOUNG ADULT

LGBTQI is a community and an umbrella term that is composed of lesbian, gay bisexual transgender, queer, and intersex. There are a high number of populations around the world that belong to the LGBTQI community. Europe has an average of 5.9% LGBTQI with Germany having the highest with 7.4% and Hungary having 1.5% (Dalia, 2013). North America has a percentage of 11% or nearly 25.6 million Americans who considered themselves a part of the LGBTQI community (Chao, Tung, & Li, 2008). LGBTQI is also associated with the coming out process of an individual to their family or relatives. The reaction of a parent after the coming out of their child has a significant effect on the child themselves in different aspects (Valentine, Skelton, & Butler, 2003). The qualitative study examines the journey of coming out of LGBTQI members, and how they cope with their parent’s initial reaction. Using a phenomenological approach in gathering data many themes have been gathered including a.) LGBTQI realized their identity at an early age, b.) they revealed their identity in different approaches, c.) initial reaction of fathers was mostly negative, d.) LGBTQI is still facing different barriers regarding their coming out process. This discussion embarks on the journey of coming out of an LGBTQI individual towards their parents. It indicated that they face dilemmas and negative responses from their parents. However, they were not very affected by their parents’ initial reaction and continued doing their best. Chosen respondents are mainly gays and lesbians who realized their identity in their adolescent period. The milestone of coming out process was mostly delivered towards their moms rather than their fathers. This leads to the barriers LGBTQI are still facing regarding coming out such as peer victimization, stressbuffering, and fear. Due to these issues, some of our respondents were subjected to a face to face confrontation with their parents and not all of them receive a positive initial response. Furthermore, there are records of abuse coming from these parents. Regardless of this, our respondents still found a way to cope and adapt to the circumstances they are facing after the coming out process.