Natural Sciences

BIOSORPTION OF TURBIDITY USING MORINGA OLEIFERA (MALUNGGAY) LEAVES

This study attempts to determine the effectivity of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves as a natural coagulant. Specifically, the study aims to determine the turbidity level of the water that is treated by Moringa oleifera leaves and determine the quantity of MO leaves that will be used to remove turbidity. The researchers predicted that MO leaves are effective coagulant in reducing the turbidity level of water. In addition, MO leaves can completely absorb turbidity in water. Sythetic turbid water was prepared from solid Kaolin powder. MO leaves were oven-dried until excess water was removed afterwards; it was activated by soaking in NaCl solution. Coagulation efficiency test was performed in two batches: (1) using activated MO leaves; and (2) using non-activated MO leaves. The Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU) was identified using Merck SQ Method 113. Based on the result of the testing of Turbidity levels of the samples sent to SGS, the MO leaves werenot able to absorb the turbidity of the sample water hence it worsen the water turbidity as the chlorphyll combines with the solutions. Further test must be employed to determine the complete absorptive capacity of the Moringa oleifera leaves.

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE USE OF ALLIUM CEPA (ONION) EXTRACTS AS A PRESERVATIVE AGENT TO DECAPTERUS MACARELLUS (GALUNGGONG)

This study focused on the effectiveness of onion (Allium cepa) extract as preservative to galunggong (Decapterus macarellus). The study covers the effects of such a preservative to texture, odor, appearance, taste and overall acceptability. The onion extract was applied on the fish and was placed in a 4 degree Celsius freezer, for 2 and 4 days. During the second and fourth day, the samples were presented to 30 panelists for evaluation using the Likert scale. The translation of scores using a T-test was done after the completion of the test for purpose of statistical analysis. At 0.05 level of significance, the p-values indicates that there is no significant difference between the fresh fish and with 2-day treatment in terms of appearance, odor, texture and the over-all acceptability except for taste. Moreover, the pvalues indicates that there is significant difference between the fresh fish and with 4-day treatment in terms of texture, taste and the over-all acceptability except for the odor and appearance. Results indicated that no chemical and microbial analyses were done in the study.

COCOS NUCIFERA SP. BIOSORPTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS IN WASTEWATERS: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

This study aimed to establish the adsorption characteristics of coconut husks, in the form of activated carbon in the removal of pharmaceutical products. Equilibrium test was conducted at varying initial concentrations to determine the effect as needed for optimum adsorption. The artificially contaminated wastewater was prepared by spiking pharmaceutical products – Ibuprofen and Paracetamol – in distilled water. Coconut husks were chemically activated by soaking in a 0.01M potassium hydroxide solution (KOH), as dehydrating agent at impregnation ratio of 1:1. Then was oven dried for 3-5 hours at 110 ?C, cooled to room temperature and ground using mortar and pestle. Wasterwaster samples with initial concentration ranging from 200-500 ppm were exposed for 24 hours with the activated cocos nucifera biosorbent. Samples were analyzed via Perkin Elmer Lambda 40 UV Visible Spectrophotometer with the maximum wavelength of 273nm and 248nm, respectively. The results of the analysis showed that coconut husk is not effective biosorbent for pharmaceutical products, particularly Ibuprofen with the adsorption percentage ranging from -14.5% to 14% and relatively low effectiveness in Paracetamol with percentage ranging only from 8% to 38.5%. The equilibrium loading was found to increase as the initial concentration decreases. Although the results displayed a successful process of biosorption of the pharmaceutical residues, that have been tested, especially for Paracetamol, the percentages of adsorption were relatively low as compared to the findings of previous studies. Thus, it cannot be clearly accounted that activated coconut husk is the most appropriate material for the removal of such organic compounds. Moreover, the differences among the concentrations of the samples in the study were limited. This may have impacted the efficiency of the biosorbent to the adsorbate.

EFFECTIVENESS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE IN THE BIOSORPTION OF 2+ LEAD (Pb ) IN WASTEWATER: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

Water pollution has been considered a major environmental problem faced by modern society. Presence of contaminants given off by industrial processes like toxic heavy metals have brought serious hazard to the environment and to human health as well. Adsorption, being identified as a principal method used to eliminate heavy metals from aqueous effluents, is considered as the best wastewater treatment method because of its universality while being an easy process. The 2+ present study examined the effectiveness of sugarcane bagasse as biosorbent for the removal of Pb ions in wastewater.Specifically, it identified the effects of varying initial concentration using equilibrium test. Results have shown that the amount of lead adsorbed increases with an increase in initial concentration. The observation is reasonable because +2 increasing the initial concentration of lead increases the gradient of concentration or the driving force of a diffusion of Pb to the mass of the biosorbent. Hence, the percent removal of heavy metals depends on the initial metal ions concentration, thus; decreases with an increase in initial metal ions concentration. Similarly, the difference in percentage removal of different heavy metal ions at the same initial metal ions concentration may be attributed to the difference in their chemical affinity and ion exchange capacity with respect to the chemical functional group on the surface of the adsorbent (Meena, Mishra, Rai, Rajagopal, & Nagar, 2005). 2+ Keywords: Biosorption, Sugarcane, Bagasse,

PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT ON THE ADSORPTION OF METHYLENE BLUE DYE IN WASTEWATER USING COCONUT LUMBER SAWDUST

Color of water is the first indicator of contamination. It is, therefore, necessary to remove contaminants from wastewater before discharging it into water bodies as these are harmful, especially to aquatic life. Dyes from wastewater of textile and dying industries are currently one of the environmental problems, wherein increased concentration of these pollutants poses environmental water degradation. Using adsorption, this study tested the effectiveness of Coconut lumber sawdust, an indigenous waste product, as biosorbent in an artificially prepared methylene blue (MB) dye wastewater. The effect of the different initial concentration was also studied. Coconut lumber sawdust was treated with 0.01 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) and was activated at 1800C for two hours in an oven. The adsorption process included agitation through aeration. Filtered samples were analyzed using Perkin Elmer Lambda 40 UV-Vis spectrophotometer with the maximum wavelength of 665 nm. Results showed that the percent removal of MB using coconut lumber sawdust ranges from 68% to 81% that implies that coconut lumber sawdust is an effective biosorbent of MB. The equilibrium loading was found to increase as the initial concentration increases. The adsorption of MB is primarily because of the activation of the sawdust. During activation, the internal surface of the coconut lumber sawdust becomes more highly developed and extended by controlled oxidation of carbon atoms (Cameron Carbon Inc., 2009). Accessibility of the internal surface area is due to the network of pores opened as the coconut lumber sawdust was activated.

PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF COPPER BIOACCUMULATION IN SOIL USING EUDRILUS EUGENAE

A wide range of pollutants have been affecting soil for the past years. These pollutants have led to major disturbances in communities and populations of soil organisms, as well as their function in the soil ecosystem. Studies have shown that earthworms are considered to be convenient indicators of land use and soil fertility for they are sensitive to toxic chemicals. According to Weltje (1998 as cited in Dai, 2004), “different factors interact to determine the amounts of pollutants accumulated by earthworms. The affinity of metals for soil constituents is the primary element to take into account. The distribution of metals among the soil phases is important for the bioaccumulation by earthworms as the main pathways for chemical absorption are the skin for soluble elements, gut transit and digestion.” This study aims to identify the effectivity of Eudriluseugenae in the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in an artificially contaminated soil and its significant difference in different levels of concentration in each sample. A total mass of 4.3g to 4.5g of 7 starved earthworms exposed for seven days to artificially prepared copper sulfate contaminated soil samples with concentration range of 1000 ppm to 5000 ppm. Soil samples were then tested for copper (Cu2+) ions concentration using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP). The results showed that there was a range 92-94 percent removal of copper in the contaminated soil which shows the effectivity of Eudriluseugeniae in bioaccumulating heavy metal. This proves that earthworms are important organisms that may enhance the function of the soil ecosystem. It is also to note that higher concentrations may highly increase the chance of greater consumption of heavy metals.

INCORPORATION OF SABA (MUSA PARADISIACA) BANANA PEEL IN FRESH PASTA

Saba or Cardaba is one of the locally grown species of banana in the Philippines. It is frequently used in making desserts such as cakes, chips, banana cues, and turon. Oftentimes after using, the saba's peel serves no other purpose and is just thrown away. In this light, this study aims to produce flour from saba peel and use it as partial substitute to semolina flour in generating fresh pasta. In addition, the study aims to identify its nutritive quality through proximate and microbial analysis, its acceptability using 9-point hedonic scale, and its production cost. The saba peel was first dried at 60O C for 8 hours using a cabinet dryer. Afterwards, it was ground, and then mixed with semolina flour in varying saba peel flour to semolina flour percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% saba peel flour). Using sensory evaluation, it was found out that the fresh pasta with 20% saba peel flour obtained the highest result in terms of aroma, flavor, texture and general acceptability. Consecutively, analysis of the nutritive quality of the freshly cooked pasta showed that the 20% saba peel pasta exhibited higher content of ash (0.88%), moisture (62.4%), total fat (6.4%) and total dietary fiber (0.85% for soluble fiber and 4.9% for insoluble fiber) as compared to the Semolina pasta. Results of the microbial analysis also showed that the pasta was safe to consume.

A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF MILK BASED SORBET WITH GLUCOSINOLATES USING RAPHANUS SATIVUS (RADISH)

This study aims to determine the glucosinolate content in Raphanus sativus, and given the potential of a more potent glucosinolate in low temperature, this research will attempt to produce a sorbet that is fortified with radish that has the possibility of being a cancer fighting food source. The variations of glucosinolates that are present in trace amounts in Raphanus sativus were evaluated and identified as isothiocyanates which has a sulfur-containing compound using Clarus 500 Gas Chromatograph. Fifty random panelists were presented 2 variations of sorbet coded as Sample A and Sample B, to be evaluated using a 7-point hedonic scale. Sample A was the controlled sorbet while Sample B was the sorbet with Radish. The translation of scores using simple averaging and ANOVA with regards to the sorbet‘s appearance, taste, odor, texture, and over-all acceptability was done after the test for the purpose of statistical analysis. Based on the results, glucosinolates such as sulfur-contaning compound have been found present in Raphanus sativus. The structures of all of the identified glucosinolates such as isothiocyanates products of myrosinase hydrolysis were confirmed by GC/MC. Translation of scores of the sensory evaluation using simple averaging for statistical analysis of the 7-point hedonic scale shows that the appearance and texture of the control sorbet are higher than the Radish sorbet but they are not significantly different. While the taste, odor and general acceptability of the control is found to be significantly higher compared to the Radish sorbet.

ACCEPTABILITY OF OREGANO AND LEMON GRASS READY TO DRINK TEA

Ready to drink (RTD) herbal tea beverage has gained popularity and conquered tea markets due to increased awareness of health benefits from polyphenols. Oregano and lemongrass could be considered as a potential functional food ingredient due to its health benefits. Thus, this study aims to utilize oregano and lemongrass into RTD tea and to determine its acceptability. The most acceptable formulation of the product was tested for: physico-chemical properties (brix, vitamin C, pH) and proximate properties (moisture, fat, ash, protein and carbohydrate) and microbiological tests using official methods. Results of proximate analyses showed that Oregano-lemongrass RTD contain 94.6% moisture, 5.4% carbohydrates, 0.02% ash, 5.09 pH, 9.8 brix and 0.01 vitamin C in mg/100mL. The microbial analysis results complied with the microbial standards of FDA in 2013 for Herbal ready to drink products. The sample composed of 80% Oregano and 40% lemongrass extract was the most acceptable amongst the formulations.

NUTRITIONAL POTENTIAL OF COIX LACRYMA-JOBI L. (ADLAI) AS A CEREAL BASED MILK DRINK

In the recent years, Adlai has been a focus of the Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Agricultural Research (DA – BAR) in the Philippines in the aspect of research and development because of its versatility and nutritional value. Adlai (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) is a grass based cereal crop that is rich in starch, vitamins and minerals. It may be a substitute for rice and corn as a potential staple food in the Philippines. This study aims to utilize Adlai as a source of Lactose-free Cereal drink, specifically (1) to evaluate the over-all acceptability of Adlai cereal based milk drink using 9-point Hedonic Scale. Also, to (2) determine the proximate analysis and Total Dietary Fiber (TDF) content of Adlai cereal based milk drink. Lastly, to (3) determine the product cost of Adlai cereal based milk drink. Adlai Milk and sweetener were tested for formulation (0, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) and were subjected to sensory evaluation. The best formulation based on the sensory evaluation was analyzed at Sentrotek in Mandaluyong City for Proximate Analysis and test for TDF. Adlai Milk yielded 13.9g Carbohydrates, 0.02g Ash, 86.1g Moisture, 12g Sugars as Invert and 0.02g TDF per 100ml Adlai Milk while protein and fat were 0.0g per 100ml Adlai Milk. It is concluded that among the samples, formulation with ratio 20 grams of sugar: 80 ml raw Adlai cereal based milk drink was the most acceptable for all the panelists. This formulation showed a significant number of total carbohydrates and energy (kcal). However, there were no detected protein and fat, and a decreased TDF in the milk. Moreover, compared to commercial cereal-based milk drink, Adlai cereal based milk drink is cost-efficient.

DEVELOPMENT OF ORANGE SWEET POTATO (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) KETCHUP

There is an increase need for food product development due to the continuing age in consumers’ interests and demands. Sweet potato (SP), a common root crop in the Philippines, is commonly used as food crop and is usually eaten boiled or fried. The roots, stems and leaves of SP have been utilized for different food products such as jam, flour and animal feeds. This study aims to utilize the tuberous root of orange sweet potato variety into ketchup. Raw orange sweet potato (OSP) and the developed ketchup were subjected to proximate, total dietary fiber, Vitamin A analysis, physicochemical and microbiological analysis. The proximate analysis of the ketchup showed that OSP ketchup is a poor source of protein (0.53g/100g) and fat (none-detected). However, the ash content increased (2.1g/100g) and there is a decrease of carbohydrate content (18.77g/100g) due to the process of boiling. On the other hand, the moisture increased (78.6g/100g) due to addition and absorption of more water. The presence of the dietary fiber and vitamin A (2.8g/100g and 15.6 µgRE/100g, respectively) contributes to the nutritional composition of the OSP ketchup. The physicochemical analysis showed that titratable acidity particularly citric acid (0.54 %w/v) inhibits the microbial growth while water activity content (0.936 Aw) showed that the product is susceptible to microbial growth. The viscosity (58,980 cp) and pH (4.11 %w/v) is within the standard showing that it possesses the qualities of ketchup. However the total soluble solids (13.1%w/v) can still be improved. The sensory evaluation of the SP ketchup showed that majority of the panellist scored 7 (like moderately) means that OSP ketchup is acceptable. The microbial analysis showed that SP ketchup complied with the standards and could be considered safe. The result of this study has proved that sweet potato could be utilized and developed into a variety of food product like ketchup.

DEVELOPMENT OF SPRAY-DRIED POWDERED KAMIAS (Averrhoa bilimbi Linn.)

Underutilized fruits contain phytochemical substances that have promising health effects on humans. The need to make these fruits commercially available is still on progress and research on them is of little importance. Averrhoa bilimbi or also known as kamias is an indigenous fruit that is cultivated semi-wild everywhere in South East Asia including the Philippines. Spray drying is a drying technique wherein a liquid or slurry feed is turned into a dry powder. Fruit juice powder is widely accepted for human consumption and is a good alternative to convenient and healthy food products. This study aims to develop an instant powdered Kamias fruit juice drink using spray-drying technique. Sensory evaluation, proximate, physicochemical, vitamin C and microbiological analysis were conducted. Seventy-five (75) untrained panelists evaluated the four formulations of fruit juice which are control (100% extract), kamias powder with 30% gum arabic, kamias powder with 30% maltodextrin and kamias powder with 15% maltodextrin and 15% gum arabic (mixed carriers). It was evaluated according to the five sensory attributes using 9-point hedonic scale. Kamias powdered juice with 30% maltodextrin was considered the best formulation by means of sensory evaluation. Proximate analysis has yielded 3.08-4.70% moisture, 0.31-0.84% fat, 1.13-2.52% protein, 0.14-2.85% ash and 90.83-93.72% carbohydrates content of the four formulations. Physicochemical analysis such as pH, TSS, Bulk Density and aw was also done with a result of 2.54-4.05, 84.31-95.03°B, 0.32-0.42g/ml, and 0.19-0.30, respectively. Vitamin C content of the kamias powders significantly decreased. Kamias powder with 30% Gum Arabic has retained the highest amount of Vitamin C among the three powdered samples. Microbial analysis of the best formulation resulted in negative presence of coliform count and yeast and mold while total plate count was 6x102cfu/g. The encapsulation method using maltodextrin and gum arabic as carriers showed different physical, chemical and sensorial properties. The encapsulation of core material was successful to retain considerable amounts of vitamin C.

ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS ASSOCIATED WITH MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE OF ELDERS IN BRGY. 655, INTRAMUROS, MANILA

According to World Health Organization (2015), malnutrition is a prevalent public health issue worldwide, predominantly among elders. With this, the study aims to assess the nutritional status of the elders residing in Barangay 655, Intramuros, Manila and their dietary pattern, to calculate and compare for the macronutrient component of their food intake with the recommended intake designed by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Philippines (FNRI) and the relationship between Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score to the total consumption of each macronutrient component of the food. Lastly, to create food-based dietary guidelines for the elders. MNA was used to determine their nutritional status and estimated food record and FFQ was used to determine their food intake. The results showed that the elders residing in the barangay are mostly at risk of malnutrition and malnourished individuals. Food intakes are found to be inadequate. Nutritional status has a positive -moderate relationship to carbohydrates, positive but weak relationship to protein and negative and weak relationship to fats. Low carbohydrate intake is the main cause of malnutrition among the elders in the barangay. Based on the findings of the current study, the researchers produced dietary guidelines that will help improve their nutritional status.

DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRITIONAL POWDERED SEASONING USING SELECTED PHILIPPINE VEGETABLE

Micronutrient deficiency is a widespread issue in all ages among developing countries. In order to address this, great interest in supplements from blends of natural herbs and spices has been given because of the health benefits they confer. With this, the study aimed to develop a powdered nutrient supplement out of locally available vegetables in the market and to identify presence of nutrients after undergoing convective drying and cryogenic grinding. The fresh vegetables have undergone drying and grinding to obtain a powdered vegetable. The samples were then analyzed for proximate properties which consist of moisture content, ash, fat, carbohydrates, and protein content. Mineral analysis (sodium, iron, and calcium) was also conducted. Moreover, the total plate count was observed for biological activity. It was found out that the powdered vegetable is high in beta-carotene with traces of minerals like calcium and iron. The sodium content was low compared to the commercially available supplements. From this study, we can conclude that the powdered vegetable supplement has a potential in substituting the commercially available seasonings in the market which has more sodium with less vitamin and mineral content.

NUTRITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND DIETARY HABITS AMONG COLLEGIATE ATHLETES AND NON-ATHLETES IN LETRAN MANILA

This study focuses on the assessment of the nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, sociodemographic information and anthropometric data of the selected collegiate athletes from volleyball, taekwondo, track n’ field, table tennis, lawn tennis, swimming and badminton and collegiate non-athletes within the age bracket of 19-24 years old, and to develop nutritional guidelines for athletes, only. This present study aims to evalu- ate the nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of the collegiate athletes and non-athletes. Specifically, to assess the anthropometric data, compare the nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of the collegiate athletes and non-athletes and develop a nutrition guidelines booklet that focuses on nutritional needs of the collegiate athletes. The number of respondents were 148 students composed of 74 collegiate athletes (37 male and 37 female) and 74 collegiate non-athletes (37 male and 37 female). The gathered anthropometric data includes the weight, height and body mass index or BMI. A questionnaire was used to gather the data of the socio-demographic information, dietary habits and nutritional knowledge of the respondents. Non-athletes (48.19±4.01) had higher means score than athletes (46.08±4.10) which considered as statistically significant (p<0.05). Collegiate non-athletes (87.70±4.26) has the higher nutrition knowledge than athletes (83.66±8.28) which were considered has high significant difference (p<0.05). The results revealed that the collegiate non-athletes has better nutrition knowledge and dietary habits than the collegiate athletes both female and male in Letran-Manila. Proper counselling with nutrition experts and monitoring of nutrition status and dietary needs of the athletes should be done throughout the year not just prior to competition, it must be before, during and after the intense training and exercise of the athletes either by the sports nutritionist or nutrition experts of the college.

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT FROM BANANA (MUSA ACUMINATE) PEELS AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

Philippines possesses a rich source of banana plants enough to provide us with its many uses. The banana peels have been used for their property of producing a substantial amount of ethanol; however, their efficacies against Staphylococcus aureus have not been studied. The present investigation involved the study of antimicrobial activity of ethanol from banana (Musa acuminate) peels against S. aureus. In the present study, banana peel waste were subjected into two phases – ethanol production and anti-microbial susceptibility testing. In producing ethanol, Musa acuminate peels were gathered and underwent pre-treatment before going through fermentation. Two samples were conditioned at a temperature of 30 °C and the pH value was set to 5.0–5.5. The samples underwent fermentation process for seven days and three days, respectively, by the culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol product from the banana peels was distillated using a distillation apparatus and two samples of 10mL and 8mL ethanol were extracted. The ethanol extract of Musa acuminate was investigated for antimicrobial activity at 100 µg/ml concentrations by using disc diffusion method against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus. After the 24- hour incubation, the zone of inhibition was compared with standard antibiotics ciproflaxin (100 µg/ mL) for comparing the results obtained with. Against the first sample of ethanol extract, Staphylococcus aureus showed a higher inhibition zone of 9 mm, whereas for the second sample, Staphylococcus aureus showed a lesser inhibition zone of about 5 mm. It was then observed that ethanol extract of Musa acuminate was potent against the S. aureus bacteria.

CHARACTERIZATION AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF PECTIN EXTRACTED FROM SABA (MUSA PARADISIACA LINN.) PEEL USING MICROWAVE ASSISTED EXTRACTION

Banana is one of the most important fruit crop grown in the Philippines in terms of production due to its high demand, nutritive value and affordability. Its fruit can be consumed in variety of forms and processed into chips, jams, jellies, powder and flour, which results to adverse waste generation that pollutes the environment. Thus, this study aimed to utilize its peel in the aspect of food application, specifically in extracting pectin, an ingredient used as thickener, stabilizer, emulsifier and gelling agent in foods. Pectin from saba peel was extracted using microwave assisted extraction (3 pH, 700 W, 128 sec). The extracted pectin had undergone characterization and based from the results, it has 6.08% ash, 1315.79 equivalent weight and 8.06% methoxyl content indicating that it has a good ability ingel forming, jelly-forming and water dispersability, respectively. Its moisture content (5.07%) was significantly low, thus, its quality is protected due to inhibition of microbial growth and pectinase enzyme production. The degree of esterification of extracted pectin (77.38%) has shown that it is a high-ester pectin and is classified rapid-set. However, the pectin has low purity, with possible presence of protein, starch and sugars, as the value of total anhydrouronic acid (59.14%). In terms of safety assessment, the lead was not detected while the standard plate count and yeast and molds were found to be negative.

DEVELOPMENT OF VITAMIN A - RICH PASTA USING RICE BRAN FLOUR AS PARTIAL SUBSTITUTE TO WHEAT FLOUR

Micronutrient deficiencies are a continual lack of nutritional vitamins and minerals and constitute a huge public health problem. Vitamin A deficiency increases vulnerability to a variety of illnesses which includes diarrhoea, measles, and respiratory infections where it is common amongst children. In order to address this, great interest in rice bran has led in the discovery of various health benefits. With this, the study aimed to develop a pasta using the rice bran as partial substitute to wheat flour and to determine the Vitamin A content of the rice bran pasta in comparison to commercially available pasta. The rice bran has undergone dry heating method at 130°C for 20 minutes and was formed into dough. The sample pasta was then analyzed for proximate analysis which consists of moisture content, ash, carbohydrates, protein, fat and crude fiber. Vitamin A content analysis was also conducted. Moreover, aerobic plate count, yeast and mold count was observed for microbial activity. It was found out that the rice bran pasta is high in Vitamin A showing a high content of 188 µgRE/100g which is 47% of the recommended dietary allowance compared to the commercially available pasta. Researchers recommend developing a rice bran pasta that should be cut and shaped into different sizes, undergo further tests with different ratios of rice bran flour and can be used for supplementary feedings in the community.From this study, it can be concluded that rice bran is safe for human consumption and can be used as a food supplement.

CHARACTERIZATION OF POWDERED PECTIN FROM WATERMELON (Citrullus lanatus) RIND

Watermelon rind is considered as a major solid waste in the Philippines due to the high consumption of watermelon pulp. It is said to contain at least 13% of pectin. Pectin is used as a gelling agent for jam and jellies. This study aims to extract pectin from watermelon rind and to characterize the extracted pectin to determine the pectin yield, equivalent weight, methoxyl content, total anhydrouronic acid content and degree of esterification. The watermelon rind was dried using a cabinet dryer @ 50°C for 24hrs before conducting the extraction. The extraction of the pectin was conducted using microwave assisted extraction (pH 2, 700 W, 158 sec). The extracted coagulated pectin was characterized obtaining the following results: pectin yield (.17%), equivalent weight (192.31), methoxyl content (1.18%), total anhydrouronic acid content (15.84%) and degree of esterification (0.42%). Based on the results obtained, it shows that watermelon rind has a low content of pectin.

NARRATING INTRAMUROS TELLING THE STORY OF OUR PAST

Knowing history is important to the student. However, we had never removed the old habit of teaching history by memorization. Who? Where? What? When? This has become the standard of teaching history. The best way to narrate history is to tell it’s story. To do this, we must know all the facts that can be learned. We try to learn everything, the smallest details, if possible. And what I mean by this is including trivia or what we can call, gossip. Then we narrate. A word about trivia. Trivia attracts listeners. In fact, it is the spice of a historical narration. But teachers or writers must be careful in using it. They must only provide a sprinkling of it in their lessons or articles. They are not tsismosos or tsismosas. They must not divert their listeners or readers from the fact that what they are saying or writing is worth listening to or reading. They must blend the general topic with the trivia.

THE EFFICACY OF ACADEMIC ASSISTANCE FOR STUDENTS IN ENGLISH AND MATHEMATICS (AASEM) TO IMPROVE STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN COLLEGE ALGEBRA

The meaning of the word tutorial in British academic parlance is a small class of one, or only a few students in which the tutor (a professor or other academic staff members) gives individual attention to the students. It is also known as supervision or refers to something more like an American discussion section that is supplemental to a large lecture course, which gives students opportunity to discuss the lectures where in they meet regularly with a guidance of the tutor. The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of the Academic Assistance for Students in Mathematics and English in improving the academic performance of the students in College Algebra. Students who were identified to have difficulties in mathematics through the diagnostic test in mathematics and the entrance examination given by the guidance center, were subjected to attend the AASEM Program but due to some conflicts other students failed to attend the said program. This study utilized the scores of these students in the Midterm and the Final Examination to compare if the injection of tutorial lesson had an effect on the performance of the students in College Algebra.

KABISAAN NG PAGGAMIT NG GRAPHIC ORGANIZER SA PAGTUTURO NG PAGBASA

Ang pagtuturo ay isang sining sapagkat ito ay isang gawaing nangangailangan ng mapamaraang paggamit ng kaalaman at kasanayan sa pagtatamo ng ninanais na bunga. Ito ay isang pagtulong sa pinakadakilang gawain ng pagkakawanggawa. Ang guro ay nagbibigay at ang mga mag-aaral ay tumatanggap ng kaalaman, karunungan at patnubay di sa pilit na paraan. Itinuturo niya sa kanila kung paano umunawa, magpahalaga, magpasiya at humusga sa katotohanan. Ginaganyak niya sa mga tinuturuan ang malayang pagsagot at pag-iisip kung paano ang isang guro sa Filipino ay inaasahang nagtataglay ng kasanayan at kahusayang umakay ng kanyang mga mag-aaral sa isang matagumpay na pagpapasya.

The consequences of education mismatch and skill mismatch on employees’ work productivity: A Structural Equation Model

The study purports to surface the impact of education mismatch and skill mismatch to the employees’ work productivity in the BPO industry. The study utilized structural equation model (SEM) to determine the causal relationships among education mismatch, skill mismatch, job satisfaction and productivity. Two hundred twenty-eight (228) call center agents from four (4) BPO companies in Makati and Quezon City participated in this exploratory study. The data were taken through a multi-aspect survey questionnaires. The model revealed that (1) education mismatch positively correlates with skill mismatch, (2) both mismatches negatively affect job satisfaction and (3) job satisfaction positively affects productivity. Findings of the study implies human resource interventions through trainings and programs that will help narrow down the gap between mismatches and the competencies required for the job.

JOB SATISFACTION AND WORK PERFORMANCE IN A CULTURALLY DIVERSE HOTEL INDUSTRY TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY OF QUALITY SERVICE PROVISION

The volatility of the labor market in the hospitality industry, particularly in hotels, continues. This situation puts a strain on the hiring and retention efforts of employers. The hospitality industry is where effectively performing service providers are key to company’s sustainability to provide quality service; therefore, work performance is no longer solely dependent on traditional job satisfac- tion drivers of hygiene and motivation. Currently where strong workforce mobility and attraction to global employment opportunities, it is noteworthy to consider the cultural diversity in the form of social demographic profile of the job market. This appreciation of diversity by both employees and employers can help to create better workspaces that steer job satisfaction to higher levels and at the same time propel work performance to its optimum state. This study has explored the role of cultural diversity as mediating factors in the job satisfaction and work performance of hoteliers. It aims to build and test a theoretical model to identify the mediating factors in the linkage between job satisfaction and work performance. A total of 421 questionnaires were utilized out of the 450 survey sheets that were distributed to six similarly categorized hotels. The Job Satisfaction Scale of Spector (1994) for job satisfaction was adapted while Yousef’s (2000) instrument was used for determining work performance. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze job satisfaction and work performance across specific diversity factors that were considered for this study. Regression Analysis was used to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and work performance as mediated by six selected demographic parameters identified as cultural diversity. The study strongly reveals that age is the primary factor affecting job satisfaction and work performance.

UTILIZATION OF PAPAYA (Carica papaya L.) EXTRACTS IN THE PRODUCTION OF YOGHURT DRINK

This study was conducted to develop a flavored yoghurt using papaya (Carica papaya L.) and evaluate its physical, chemical, and microbiological qualities and sensory acceptance. Yoghurt is known for its benefits in digestion because of the bacterial cultures like Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus, which were used in this study. Papaya yoghurt was made with different proportions of the extract: 10%, 15% and 20%. Papaya-flavored yoghurt and plain samples (no extract added) were analyzed for physico-chemical and microbial quality, and sensorial acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. The packaging of the finished product was also discussed. The sensory evaluation showed that the added papaya extract improved the sensory and nutritional property of the yoghurt compared to the control. It showed statistical difference in flavor, taste and odor but showed no statistical difference in color and overall acceptability of the samples. The flavored yoghurt with 20% of papaya extract was the most preferred than other formulations. The fat reduced in value (2.8 g/100mL) when the papaya extract was incorporated together with the protein (3.3 g/100mL) and ash (0.91 g/100mL). While the carbohydrates increased in the experimental (9 g/100mL) due to higher sugar than in milk alone, it added on the nutrient content of the yoghurt. The microbiological requirement of all the yoghurt samples falls within the acceptable standards. The required lactic acid bacteria count was reached. It survived more in the experimental (1.5x106) compared to plain yoghurt (1.1x106). This study confirms that the production of papaya yoghurt is acceptable to the consumer.

UTILIZATION OF BANABA (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) LEAVES FOR POWDERED MILK-TISANE

Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) tree was observed to be herbal tree inside the Philippines as well as in India, Malaysia, Vietnam and Indonesia. Banaba leaf tea is usually used as medicinal drinks which are known for its blood-sugar lowering mainly its efficiency in curing diabetes, and antioxidant. It is simply by using their leaves extracted with hot water. Although in locals, the Banaba leaves are used to treat diabetes and are taken as a medicine. On the quest for creating new product of local milk-tea, the studies include the physico-chemical analysis, its sensory evaluation, antioxidant potential. Analyzing the formulated milk tea with the commercial milk tea as controlled, with codes of 863 and 924, respectively, the appearance of the showed little difference of mean scores. In its aroma, given 924 as more acceptable while the color, taste, flavor and its overall acceptability shows 863 is higher. In the t-test; appearance, aroma, and color with P value of 0.89585, 0.257584, 0.49589 respectively, showed no significance while the taste, flavor and overall acceptability with 0.01448. 0.007409, 0.00347 respectively, showed significance between the two products. In the DPPH Assay, ascorbic acid as positive control in its absorbance has continuously decreasing compared to the sample that has retained in constant with less increase and decrease of absorbance. The scavenging activity between two sample as ascorbic acid its positive control has significantly in an increase in concentrations while the sample became as well in constant or no significant differences with an increase of dilution. In conclusion, the Banaba milk tea can potentially be considered for its sensory traits and its antioxidant activity.

APPLICATION OF PERMEABLE CONCRETE TO REDUCE THE OCCURRENCE OF FLOOD IN INTRAMUROS, MANILA

Urbanization has greatly increased the number of impermeable surfaces in Manila. The historic place in Metro Manila, which is Intramuros, has been prone to floods during long and short-lived intense rainfalls. One of the traditionally blamed factors besides the age-old drainage system and clogged streams was the increase in concrete pavements. Permeable concrete has been used around the world to address the problem of flooding and other negative effects such as groundwater pollution and Urban Heat Island. This study conducted several flexural strength tests and falling head tests to assess the flexural strength and permeability of permeable concrete. The data and results from the tests were compared with the data gathered from Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) and Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) to determine the efficiency of permeable concrete in reducing the occurrence of flood in Intramuros, Manila.

TRAFFIC CONGESTION ANALYSIS OF MOLINO ROAD AND DAANG HARI ROAD INTERSECTION AND APPLICATION OF CONTINUOUS FLOW INTERSECTION (CFI)

This paper analyzed Molino Road and Daang Hari Road Intersection and applied the Continuous Flow Intersection which was compared to the current condition of the intersection and the proposed intersection design. The study conducted a 16-hour manual traffic count in 14 days with 7 days of the holiday season that started from November 24 to November 30, 2018, and 7 days of the non-holiday season that started from January 28 to February 3, 2019. The researchers interviewed 3 traffic enforcers, a barangay representative, 13 commuters, 3 motorists, and the Bacoor Traffic Management Development planner to highlight the problem factors that affect the performance of the intersection. The simulation tool PTV Vistro determined the result of the gathered data and the design tool PTV Vissim planned the Continuous Flow Intersection. The results showed that the conducted manual traffic countingfor both holiday and non-holiday season determined the AM peak hour that starts from 6am to 9am and PM peak hour that starts from 4pm to 9pm. The PM peak 5pm to 6pm data was used by the researchers on the analysis of Level of Service. The level of service of the current condition of the intersection falls to F for both holiday and non-holiday.After the optimization of the signal timing and CFI design application the result changed to D for the holiday and C for the non-holiday. Results showed that the proposed design improves the current condition of the intersection