Political Science

THE LEGAL IMPLICATIONS OF COHABITING COUPLES ON CHILDREN WELFARE

Cohabitation means a man and a woman usually in the same age bracket, living together as though they were husband and wife. The issues on cohabitation raised many concerns about the nature of family life and future of marriage. The purpose of the study was to investigate the legal implications of cohabiting couples on children’s welfare, consequences of cohabitation in the welfare of the children, income sharing and community property. Qualitative research methodology was utilized in the study. The results of the interview revealed that there are a lot of differences in the services given by the different institutions of the society to the children of cohabiting couples. The author recommends that the Government should make necessary actions for the benefit of children of cohabiting couples.

WOMEN IN LOCAL LEGISLATION

Political participation is higher among men than women in most parts of the world. As time goes by, more technologies are being developed; women are accepted in the society especially in the politics where the potentials of women can be compared to male politicians. This article studies the perspectives of constituents on how a female politician can handle a given position better than male politicians. With the use of a complete triangulation of techniques via survey, interviews and secondary analysis of data; this study shows that women hold more radical opinions on issues regarding gender equality and being a political entity. These factors have positive impact on women’s participation, and as a result, women often confront a “glass cliff” in which their position in the office is precarious. Results indicated that women now are truly accepted in politics especially here in the Philippines; women are also very cooperative in political exercises in which it increases the support of women politicians here in the Philippines. Also, there was a strong preference for a female politician on the appointment when the seat was described as hard to win.

THE POLITICAL CULTURE OF SELECT LETRAN STUDENTS

When it comes to social and political participation, the youth comes to mind last. The culture of politics amongst students is a shady idea especially in an institution like that of Colegio de San Juan de Letran. In a school setting, social media (websites that create inter-personal relationship), school culture (which can be described as characteristics inherent to the Colegio), and influential people (who may be members of the faculty and seminar guest speakers) are considered as primary influential factors for political orientation due to their accessibility for students while inside the school. Through Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis that examines power relations involved in the discourses available in political forums, this paper describes the political culture of Letran students. As illustrated in this paper, the political culture of Letran students is a collection of characteristics that may as well give the political identity of the Letran student body as a whole: a mixture of tolerant, active-conservative and a democratic political culture.

YOUTH IN NATION-BUILDING ACT: POLICY DEVELOPMENT AS INFLUENCED BY THE YOUNG THROUGH THE KABATAAN PARTY-LIST

Youth policy serves as a tool in promoting greater participation of young people on the issues of society and government. The Kabataan Party-list is a youth in the Philippine Congress that continuously gives primacy to the promotion of holistic development and genuine youth empowerment. It supports youth and student led organization working for social and political change. Utilizing interviews and group discussions, this study focuses on how the Kabataan Party-list is giving the youth a chance to be involved in the government processes; and how in turn, the youth actively participate in governance to shape the policies affecting them. With the use of Typology of Youth Policy Regime, this study evaluates the connection among policies, participation, and youth movements.

A STUDY ON THE PHILIPPINE ANTI-MAIL-ORDER BRIDE ACT OF 1990

Under Philippine laws, the Mail-Order Bride (MOB) Phenomenon is a mechanism of human-trafficking. However, the Philippines remains to be the top exporter of MOBs in Asia. And the presence of advancements in Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) seem to have given Marriage Brokers (exploiters) a way to circumvent the law, specifically by the operations of such exploiters. This research aimed to determine if there is a need to amend Republic Act 6955 (RA 6955), otherwise known as the Philippine Anti-Mail-Order Bride Act (PAMOBA) of 1990 through qualitative examination of the effect of advancements in ICTs in its implementation based on the interviews of stakeholders (experts). The narratives were grouped by themes and analyzed through the use of a dendrogram. Stakeholders claim that ICTs are helpful in both the implementation of programs that augment the law and the operations of the MOB. The results ascertain that the advancements of ICTs affect both the operations of exploiters and the stakeholders— that it had helped the sophistication of operations of exploiters, and had helped the stakeholders and victims in the identification and subsequent prosecution of exploitation as well as to strengthen the fight against human-trafficking via this mechanism.

A STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MANILA HEALTH DEPARTMENT IN IMPLEMENTING PD 856 SEC. 14 TO FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS IN INTRAMUROS, MANILA

It is one of the pivotal roles of the government to ensure food safety and sanitation among its people. Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination. A Food Establishment’s Sanitary Permit is a way to prove that there is Food Safety. This study aims to determine the issues encountered by the Manila Health Department in implementing such policy and to describe the process of securing a sanitary permit. In the effort to discover whether the MHD is effective in implementing its policy, the researcher conducted focused interviews among MHD Officials and Samahan ng mga Nagkakaisang Manininda ng Intramuros members & non-members. The study revealed that though the Manila Health Department is doing its best efforts to ensure Food Safety within its jurisdiction, still there are lapses in both parties which result to the hindrance of the effectiveness of the said PD in the locale.

POLITICAL PARTICIPATION: THE EFFECT OF THE NEW MEDIA AND TRADITIONAL MEDIA ON VOTER TURNOUTS IN LAS PIÑAS CITY

This research examined the influence of attention to specific forms of traditional and online media on young adults’ online and offline political participation as well as voter turnout during the 2016 Philippine Presidential Election. A quantitative approach was used in order to get the relationship between the use of the New Media and the Traditional Media in the voter mobilization of the young adults in Las Piñas. The results show that newspaper reading has the strongest effects among traditional news sources. However, actively participating in the communication process was the effect of the New Media.

P/FILIPINOLOHIYA: AN ANALYSIS ON THE LEADER SELECTION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON THE RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE OF AGTA TRIBE IN ALABAT, QUEZON PROVINCE

Political Culture (PC) according to Tepper (2010) refers to the pattern of beliefs and assumptions ordinary people have towards the world, as these pertain to politics, and it opened a huge picture of how it affects the political participation (PP) of every nation especially the partake of our Indigenous People (IP). The research determined how the Political Culture of the tribe member of Agta tribe and how it affects their Political Participation to the state politics, and identified the Agtas in Alabat, Quezon regarding their awareness of their rights as Indigenous People (IP) like the Right to suffrage. This study assesses as well the IP’s knowledge and understanding of the society and theirattitude towards their stand about the contemporary issues and, identify their practices inside their tribes. However, Pilipinolohiya (Filipinology) Theory was used to know the culture of the respondents from “within” and bounded by the Filipino centric viewpoint, using narrative method and interview guide question, revealed that the Indigenous People (IP) of Alabat even though their Political Culture is slowly fading, their qualification is still bounded on the characteristics that they are aiming to have as a leader in their traditional manner even the effects of modernization. Furthermore, they are aiming to reinstate, enrich and preserved their culture. The findings recommended that the government should act for them to be placed on one community it will help them to attain their goals of having a well-preserved culture.

NANUNUNGKULAN AS LEVIATHAN: A STUDY ON CHILDREN-IN-CONFLICT WITH THE LAW “PRISON” ORGANIZATION IN RELATION TO THOMAS HOBBES' SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY

States have been dealing with different methods to approach juvenile delinquency specifically how to stop Children in Conflict with the Law (CICL) from re-offending. This study discovered a possible way to address this issue, especially to states adopting a treatment-based program. The purpose of this research is to have an in-depth study about the prison organization called Nanunungkulan / leaders composed of CICL in Manila Youth Reception Center (MYRC). By which, the said prison organization was explained through Thomas Hobbes Social Contract Theory. This study also identified the relationship of the Nanunungkulan to the CICL submissive to them and the outcome of such submission once the CICL were released. This has been done by interviewing released CICL, the Social Welfare Officer Head, and Thomas Hobbes ex-perts to relate the experience of CICL to state of nature, leviathan, and social contract. This showed that the CICL subjects were at first, abso-lutely violent because the SWOs by law cannot harm them. Until such time CICL became fearful yet submissive to the Nanunungkulan or leaders who instill discipline and order inside through violent punishment. The released CICL obeyed the leaders' rules and orders for their own safety/protection and own good from the proved violence inside. The violence in MYRC portrays Thomas Hobbes' state of nature, the prison organization or Nanunungkulan acts as the Leviathan, and the submission of the CICL subjects as the social contract. The outcome of the said process greatly helped the Released CICL. Thus, the researcher recommends that the presence of leaders in Youth detention homes should be considered with violence to be observed.

BLASPHEMY AND THE CRIME OF OFFENDING RELIGIOUS FEELINGS VERSUS FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: BALANCING OF RIGHTSENDING RELIGIOUS FEELINGS VERSUS FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: BALANCING OF RIGHTS

The main objective of this research was to determine how the crime of offending religious feelings was applied and how it created an imbal- ance in the practice of free expression and religious freedom. This involved a survey of jurisprudence pertaining to the crime of offending religious feelings, and a review of how the latter affected theof practice free expression and religious freedom. This contains cases on how freedom of expres- sion and religious freedom were practiced in the Philippine setup; how the crime of offending religious feelings caused an imbalance applying the “Defamations of Religions” theory and the abuse of rights doctrine. Qualitative data from offenders of the crime of offending religious feelings, high ranking religious persons, and criminal law experts were gathered from interviews. The study concluded what constitutes as notoriously offensive to religious feelings and the mechanics of the crime of offending religious feelings based on an analysis of cases and jurisprudence and the perceptions of law practitioners. It was also concluded that the crime of offending religious feelings limited free expression in a way that it does not get abused.

Clamor for Greater Excellence, Arriba Letran!*

When Fr. Rolando De la Rosa, O.P. was elected rector of Letran Calamba after his term of office as Rector of the University of Santo Tomas, he said in jest that he felt being recycled for a young institution like Letran in Calamba, Laguna. I do not exactly feel the same thing, but like Fr. Roland, I, too, have mixed feelings over taking the helm of Colegio de San Juan de Letran after my stint as rector of the huge University of Santo Tomas.

Epiphany and Celebration in Asian Life and Aesthetics

Upon reaching the top level of Borobudur in Java, Indonesia, on a cloudless day and only the great central stupa stands before you pointing to a sky that is pure light, you come to some analogical understanding of what “enlightenment” might be. You remember the deep darker alleys you have passed through with an infinite number of reliefs—quite distinct and more sensuous relief which tell the story of Buddhist spiritual ascent to enlightenment—and now this great illumination where physical sensation does not have much to do and there is only this mystic blending of light that is both of the eyes and of the mind. This great religious masterpiece in stone is at once an exquisite theological and an integrated technological statement.

Burgeoning Discourse on Martyrdom

For the Letran community, the beatification of the two holy martyrs of the 1936 Spanish Civil War, Fr. Jesus Villaverde Andres, O.P. and Fr. Antonio Varona Ortega O.P., will now be an additional part of the rich and continuing history of the Colegio. More so, this would be an emerging call for this institution to be more motivated in shaping contemporary mass consciousness to become genuine disciples of truth and humble apostles of Jesus Christ. The life and martyrdom of these venerable servants of God will be an open epistle reminding every member of the community that life is always beautiful especially if it is spent according to the will of God. Martyrdom is indeed a gift to some. Everyone has the chance but only few will experience this opportunity where faith in God is valiantly expressed in exchange of a suffering of death. Hence, the immeasurable courage of these two martyrs is more than enough to be a source of inspiration, hope, love and courage as well. And as pure as their hearts, it would be a strong testimony that we, too, even if we may not become martyrs of our time, should always have the same faith in God.

Guidance and the Filipino Youth in Conflict with the Law

Juvenile crime and delinquency are serious problems in every society today. Their intensity and gravity depend mostly on the social, economic and cultural conditions in each country. There is evidence, however, of an apparent worldwide increase in juvenile criminality combined with economic recession, especially in marginal sectors of urban centers. From 1995 to 2000, over 10,500 children were arrested and detained every year. In many cases, youth offenders are “street children” who have been exposed to violence in their immediate social environment, either as observers or as victims. Their basic education, when they have it at all, is poor; their primary socialization from the family is too often inadequate; and their socio-economic environment is shaped by poverty and destitution. Rather than relying solely on the criminal justice system, approaches to the prevention of violence and crime should include measures to support equality and justice, to combat poverty and to reduce hopelessness among young people (UNICEF, 1995).

REDISCOVERING INTRAMUROS BORDERLINES: A Proposal to Create a Database for the Establishment of Letran Center for Intramuros Studies (LCIS)

What is new? What is hot? Intellectuals tend to look for the novel idea; the sparks that will make them shout “Eureka”! But an idea cannot be taken in isolation. Along side with it comes the what-it-is-not; and it consequently contributes to the what-it-is. So for a new thing to emerge, there are tons and tons of what-has-been, things that already emerged if not dilapidated or scorned and abandoned. New things are actually offshoots of the old things. But the question is what should be done to the old things? Practically speaking, one could with ease say throw them or worse set them into the flames for they are hazards and liabilities to attain par excellence or ISO standards; and their ashes will mark a fresh start for something new. But how could one throw away something of great historical significance? How could one afford to abandon a locale of marvelous cultural legacy? This perhaps is the dilemma why the Philippine government took effort to preserve the Intramuros ruins.

A MORAL PHILOSOPHICAL BASIS FOR BIOETHICS

Once, after speaking on informed/substitute consent, a pediatrician told me: “Father, I decide on behalf of the parents, because I know better.” On another occasion, a physician said to me: “Father, I love my patients so much that I carry out their requests.” How do we evaluate the actions of these two physicians? What will be the bases for our ethical judgment? I hope we shall be able to answer those questions properly after reflecting on the topic “A Moral Philosophical Basis for Bioethics.” From the Philippines and in a global perspective, I plan to develop the theme in four parts. First, I shall speak on bioethics and its possible groundings; second, on the most radical philosophical foundation of bioethics, namely, the human person, his/her dignity and rights; third, on the radical principle of ethics and bioethics, that is, the principle of respect for human beings, and fourth, on the intrinsic ethical principles, namely, virtues.

THE RICE CRISIS in the PHILIPPINES

The Philippines is experiencing an unusual problem – high price of rice. Unusual because the Philippines is an agricultural country endowed with plenty of natural resources, yet it is now the world’s largest importer of rice. What happened? Why are we experiencing this problem? Will rice depart from Filipino tables? The world still grows plenty of rice but the crisis is caused by several factors. In the Philippines, the government assures that there is enough supply for every Filipino. This, of course, is in the form of imported rice as rice production in the country is not enough to feed the entire population. The Philippines has been importing rice since the Spanish period. This continued through the American regime, and still continues until today. The long queues of people buying rice are not new. The same scenario happened in the 1930s, 1970s and in the middle of 1990s brought about by weather disaster, mismanagement and corruption. At present, the crisis is also brought about by abandonment, conversion and reclassification of lands. Whatever the reasons for such, one thing is certain – the use of land for rice is diminishing.

THE EFFECTS OF LOGOTHERAPY ON THE DEPRESSION LEVEL OF SELECTED FRESHMAN COLLEGE STUDENTS OF COLEGIO DE SAN JUAN DE LETRAN

Logotherapy emphasizes that meaning exists in all circumstances. Finding meaning is complex and is found in the individual’s confrontation with the challenges of the world. How can adolescents find orientation and meaning in the midst of conditions and suffering, particularly in depression? The objective of this study is to determine the effects of a meaning-centered approach to therapy on the depression experienced by adolescent freshmen of Colegio de San Juan de Letran. Because of the seriousness of adolescent depression, adolescents perceive that life is devoid of meaning, they often feel confused and conflicted about what they should be doing and whom they can trust, combined with the conflicting demands of parents and peers, and environmental struggles in the society. To address these concerns, logotherapy was applied to a number of depressed adolescent freshmen presently enrolled in Colegio de San Juan de Letran. This approach would encourage adolescents to face difficult challenges while trying to make sense out of suffering. This study utilized the pretest/posttest control group design to compare measurements made before, and after the application of logotherapy. The logotherapy program is based on Frankl’s (1984) therapeutic techniques and methods. Results reveal both quantitative and qualitative parts of this study, which point towards the fact that finding and pursuit of a worthy meaning lessens depression significantly and symptoms dissipate; thus, results imply an empowering effect towards recovery.

BRIDGING EXCELLENCE AND HUMANITARIANISM: THE ROLE OF ACADEME IN FIGHTING POVERTY

Much had been told in history that the best symphony comes from everyone in the group doing the best they can have for themselves as well as for the group. When a person pursues what is essential for his well-being and tries to make himself as successful as possible, it is a pleasing truth for his community. But it is more rewarding if that individual, along with his success, also makes a difference for the community. This simple analogy stands up as one of the major foundations for achieving accomplishments in many areas of human concerns including the continuous search for solutions to alleviate poverty. Academe is a witness to the increasing rate of poverty in the Philippines especially in the urban areas. Along with the development of Metro Manila and other major regional centers, the manifestations of poverty are also creating its own magnitude. Hordes of domestic migrants from depressed provinces came in to developed locations to find their source of living and attempt to experience some of the luxuries in life. However, these urban areas do not have enough capacity to provide them the best quality of life which in turn creates additional problems like proliferation of informal settlers, unemployment, and, worst, hunger.

LOVE MANAGEMENT: A PARADIGM SHIFT FROM A HEART IN HELL TO A HEART IN HEAVEN

Ignorance, disease, undernourishment, political and economic subjugation are still the most powerful forces stunting individual growth. But it is interesting to note that an essential feature of the individual’s predicament today is that there is no villain. What is pressing the individual is the very nature of modern society. John W. Gardner says that men in the grimmest moments of modern industrialism are no more miserable than the Egyptian slaves who built the pyramids. It is neither science nor advanced technology that causes the trouble. The root of the difficulty is an attitude of mind that has never really died out in the world, nor perhaps even diminished greatly since the days of the Pharaohs— a willingness to sacrifice human values to other objectives. He further claims that life is harsh, and it has always been harsh. The only sensible view of life is, and has always been, based on a clear-eyed recognition—not necessarily acceptance—of the elements of tragedy, irony and absurdity in life.

TUITION FEE INCREMENT AND QUALITY OF EDUCATION OF SELECTED PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN METRO MANILA

Tuition fee increment is considered as the major source of financial earnings of every private educational institution in the Philippines. Apart from the provision of quality education, the survival and achievement of the goals and objectives of private educational institutions also depend on its capacity to generate financial earnings. This study assessed the increment of tuition fees of four private secondary schools in Metro Manila from school years 2005-2007. The study found that tuition fee increments post significant effects to the level of enrollment, compensation and fringe benefits of employees, improvement in development programs, services, and facilities of each private educational institution. The improvement in the said factors in return facilitated the provision of quality education to the students.

ETHICS EAST AND WEST: AN ENCOUNTER BETWEEN UTILITARIAN AND BUDDHIST ETHICS

Utilitarianism and Buddhism are two philosophical systems, which came from two different Traditions (Utilitarianism belonging to the Western Tradition and Buddhism belonging to the Eastern Tradition). Although both systems differ in origin, history, context and culture, both share a lot of commonalities. First, both beliefs seek what is “the good”, second, both are geared towards the search for happiness of humankind (and consequently of all sentient beings) and third, to some extent both focuses on the effects of the actions that the agent performs. Based on these three commonalities mentioned above, we could say that there are indeed parallelisms, which we could find in both systems of thought.

MARTIN BUBER: INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE AS MAN’S SEARCH FOR MEANING

Clearly, we are now living in a period in history characterized by many historians and sociologists as “postmodern”. One characteristic of this period in history is a greater awareness of the different religious traditions. In some places and periods we have been deeply aware of other religious traditions living and growing alongside our own. However, we have to admit that “this pluralistic consciousness has only fully emerged during the lifetime of people now living.” (Hick 1992: 7) Prior to our age, religions such as Hinduism, and Buddhism, Judaism and Islam, were generally seen as “strange and dark residues of paganism, utterly inferior to Christianity and proper targets of the churches’ missionary zeal.”1 Today, however, we have all become conscious, in varying degrees, that our Christian history is one of a number of variant streams of religious life, each with its own distinctive forms of experience, thought and spirituality. In a much greater degree, we are now more aware of our “neighbors” who belong to other great world faiths. Knowledge and information about these great religions can now be easily accessed. In big colleges and universities, we find ourselves listening to lectures on Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam. Our libraries (and especially our local bookstores), on the other hand are well equipped with books about the sacred writings of great world religions. Travel opportunities have also multiplied and great number of people has spent time in India, Turkey, Egypt, Sri Lanka, and other non-Christian countries. As a result, more people have actually encountered people who actually belong to these major religions. Buddhists, Muslims and Hindus can now be encountered as “real” people in our day-to-day experiences. Such a tremendous awareness of religious pluralism is very pertinent in our time today. The question now is: how should we, as Christians Martin Buber: Interreligious Dialogue.. deal with this emerging consciousness with people of other faiths? Can we still claim that ours is “the only way”, one that possesses the “absolute Truth”? What would be the most appropriate approach to dialogue? How should we reach out to our brothers and sisters who belong to other faiths?

THE POLITICS OF TRADE RELATIONS BETWEEN PHILIPPINES AND AUSTRALIA: THE CAIRNS GROUP ISSUE

The politics of trade, markets, international bargaining and the role of government and extra governmental actors in these processes are classified as international political economy. Each actor, whether it is a country or corporation, has its role to play and its own policies for interacting in the global marketplace. In order to understand the interactions amongst parties it is necessary to understand each party’s policies and the reason behind them. In terms of governments as global actors, these international policies are rooted in domestic policy. The implication of this idea is that foreign policies are subjective and rely more on internal institutions, which are a result of national development and history, rather than the pressures of external forces. National goals and needs shape international actions. It is in this view that this paper will be based – the role of domestic actors and government in the international trade. In June 2002, the international trade market was shocked when the Philippines’ newspapers were flooded with news that the Philippines will leave the Cairns Group if Australia will not end the 20-year ban imposed on Philippine fruits including mangoes, bananas, pineapples, and coconut peat. The Philippines is negotiating to get Australia’s clearance to export the aforementioned fresh fruits despite bilateral negotiations between Manila and Canberra over the past five years and the talks continue until today.

SHAME HONOR: THE OXYMORON OF THE FLAG AND HERALDIC CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES

What could have been an honor for “Concert King” of the Philippines, Martin Nievera to be privileged to sing the Philippine National Anthem before a multitude of viewers around the world during the Pacquiao-Hatton fight in Los Angeles, California, last May 8, 2009 became a shame when the National Historical Institute (NHI) of the Philippines thumbed down said performance. NHI and some conservative sectors of Philippine society did not like it and considered it an unacceptable interpretation of the anthem in violation of the law. “Lupang Hinirang”, the Philippine National Anthem is not open to free interpretation, according to the National Historical Institute Chair, Ambeth Ocampo. Nievera, the personal choice of Manny Pacquiao, received negative reactions from Filipinos when he sang the anthem in a slow tempo in the beginning, went to a march in the middle, and ended with a sustained (birit) high note in the end.

POLITICAL PERSPECTIVES ON VOTING BEHAVIOR

In contemporary democratic societies, elections have been generally defined as “the embodiment of the popular will, the expression of the sovereign power of the people.” It is a principal means through which citizens can influence their leaders representing their respective groups. And these represent the democratic nature of the government wherein the people exercise their right of suffrage by choosing and electing their candidates for a given period of time and the retention and removal of which depends on the people themselves. Therefore, democracy can be interpreted as a rule by the people, consistent as to what Article II section 1 of the constitution states “Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them.”

COSMOPOLITANISM ACCORDING TO MAX SCHELER

The jubilant proclamation that “ours is already the postmodern age”1 constantly remains the subject matter of the contemporary discussions in almost every sector. The inexhaustible excitement and indefatigable efforts are coupled with enormous optimism and joyful tone that the ‘new age’ opens an opulent reservoir of constructive, transformative possibilities, not least its deconstructive and nihilistic tendencies. The hopeful project of transformations that the ‘new age’ will likely offer impels especially the concerned and well-informed individuals, circles, and at most everybody to accept it as a burden and task. It is not an accident to mention the term ‘burden’, for surely it requires a creative conscious effort of participants to embrace the final conversion of unconditional service to humanity. The creation and vision of good future characterizes that general attitude and disposition of the present age. Alfredo Co writes, “sadly, it will be a world not for us to see, but gladly, it will be a world we have all helped to create.”2 It seems to be challenge than to induce a feeling of guilt not to cherish and enjoy the works of our own hands before we give way to history. Indeed, it is more than a legacy we bequeath to next generations. An alternative reading of this could an exhortation and gentle suggestion of fast-paced cooperation of many players in the world-arena. That is why, it is not surprising that the most favored concepts and practices of our age are openness, dialogue, inclusiveness, welcoming not rejecting, compassionate not egoistic, holistic, integral etc. that would foster a genuine understanding and could promote communal values in a global scale.

THE INDUSTRIAL METAMORPHOSIS OF BANAWE, QUEZON CITY... IN THE EYES OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC

Places like products also possess trademarks. If products have brands and labels, places are likewise given a certain tag or image by the general public. In the Philippines, every region, province, city, down to the barangay, are also associated with a certain image. These images are attributed to the physical environment, culture, traditions and even the goods and services uniquely offered by the place. When beaches are being talked about, a typical Filipino would think of places such as Palawan, Boracay, Batangas, Bohol, and Puerto Galera. Historical artifacts in the Philippines are connected with the antique houses of Vigan, walls of Intramuros, Corregidor and Mount Samat in Bataan, and Magellan’s cross in Cebu. Although the Philippines is a tropical country, people seeking for a different weather condition initially consider Baguio and Tagaytay as a point of destination. Laguna is associated with hot springs and Buko pie, Dagupan Pangasinan is known for its Bangus, the best Philippine mangoes are registered with Guimaras, and delectable Filipino delicacies are found in Pampanga. Feasts and celebrations are associated with Lucban, Quezon for the Pahiyas, Fertility Dance and Rites in Obando Bulacan, and the MassKara Festival of Bacolod City.

APPLYING DEPENDENCY THEORY TO JAMAICA’S CYCLICAL PARADIGM OF ECONOMIC COLLAPSE

With roughly 2.8 million people, Jamaica is the largest English speaking country in the Caribbean region. Also, a former colony of Great Britain, Jamaica was essentially the West Indian production haven for sugar. After centuries of colonization, independence was granted forcing self-governance and economic reliance on the newly formed Jamaican citizens. However, the country was left dependent on foreign capital, aid and investment. The purpose of this study is to answer the primary research question: How does dependency theory explain and examine Jamaica’s high level of income inequality and poor economic performance in the past three decades from 1976 to 2010.After which, I provide initial data on Jamaica’s economic retardation and highlight the relationships “between the external penetration by the dominant powers and the internal domination of a country’s [Jamaica’s] political economy by local elites, and the impact of that interrelationship on peripheral societies” (Rose, 2002, p. 5). The data shows varying level of cyclical dependence on foreign trade and investment. Research suggests future implications that ensure both domestic and foreign investments fit into the prevailing factor endowments and infrastructure of Jamaica.

THE COMPLEMENT OF PASSION FOR ARTS AND GROWTH OF TOURISM AT ANGONO, RIZAL

The Philippines is one of the countries in Asia that has a diverse and rich cultural heritage. A community in the Philippines particularly the municipality of Angono at the province of Rizal is considered as the “art capital of the Philippines,” known for its local culture and numerous artists producing countless art works using various media sustained through generations. For the past decades, the passion for arts evolved and progressed tothe growth of tourism in the municipality. The art works are the major attractions which encourage tourists to visit Angono, while tourism contributes to the development of Angono community in various ways. This study would like to determine how arts and tourism complement each other to benefit the community of Angono. The study would also determine how community members sustain their passion for art and contribute to the growth of tourism.

THE INTERNATIONAL POLITICS OF MINDANAO CONFLICT: FROM WAR TO PEACE-MAKING

Intra-state conflict resolution nowadays is no longer an exclusive affair among states, but rather played by multiple actors from manifold levels, and influenced by several international agenda. At times, several frames come into play and tension happens. This dialectical relationship is present in peace-making and brings dilemma to the principal actors. However, the collision of interests and worldviews could also bring creativity and innovation, such as the creation of the International Contact Group in Mindanao peace negotiation which brought inclusivity and transparency to the process. The International Contact Group shows the flattening of international peace-making mechanism, away from the traditional state-centered, pyramid-like relationship of international mediation and third party facilitation.

AN EVALUATION OF THEORETICAL ROBUSTNESS OF DESTINATION SUSTAINABILITY IN TOURISIM

Maintaining destination sustainability has been gaining attention from academic researchers over the past three decades, and it remains a popular issue in the recent five years. This topic is of great importance because of its potential benefits in improving the life quality of local communities, accelerating economic development, and passing down cultural values to the succeeding generations. Sound ideas often have strong theoretical foundations; nevertheless, limited studies have examined the theoretical robustness of this topic. Hence, this study first retrieved 15 recently published articles (i.e., from 2013 to 2016) from top- tier hospitality and tourism journals and then evaluated the theoretical robustness of these articles. Findings of the present study indicated that in terms of the topic destination sustainability in tourism, the articles retrieved to study are theoretically robust to a great extent. Future studies should involve the less applied theories to enhance the theoretical rigorousness in tourism.

URBAN – URBAN MIGRATION: EXPERIENCES OF THE CEBUANO MIGRANTS IN METRO MANILA

Metro Cebu and Metro Manila are the two largest highly urbanized areas in the Philippines. This paper provides the causality of migration by Cebuano migrants in Metro Manila and their bases to stay longer even though they came from another highly urbanized area. Through the years, migrants have also been dwelling with several dilemmas in Metro Manila. The differences of the two highly urbanized areas in the Philippines were distinguished through migrants’ experiences and observations. This study employed qualitative approach using descriptive case study design. Secondary data were used to suffice the representativeness of the participants’ claims. Furthermore, the data of the study had explained that migration may be viewed as a process to satisfy the needs of Cebuano migrants. It was found that the push factors were few opportunities and low salary rate in the place of origin while the pull factors were the influence made by their overseas family member and encouragement from a relative who had a migration history. Interestingly, there is a recurring pattern of migration since Cebuano migrants became the pull factors of their other relatives. They also revealed some socio -economic disparities between the two highly urbanized areas in the Philippines and an environmental stressor. The unique experiences of the Cebuano migrants were caused by the push and pull factors that led them to move to Metro Manila. They represented dynamism of people who show competitiveness in dealing with daily challenges in order to improve the quality of life.

POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PHILIPPINE HYBRID RICE PROGRAM

In an attempt to increase rice production and to attain rice self-sufficiency in the Philippines, hybrid rice technology has been acknowledged and is now becoming a trend in the rice industry. Under the Department of Agriculture's Gintong Ani Program, hybrid varieties have been demonstrated on large-scale farmers' field trials at eleven provinces targeted for hybrid rice cultivation. The current state of the technology has been reached through collaborative efforts by members of the national rice R&D network spearheaded by PhilRice, the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), and members of the private rice seed industry. Two hybrids, Magat and Mestizo, have been released in the country, hybrid rice seed production and cultivation technologies have been developed and packaged in the form of manuals, video tapes and other information dissemination materials, a critical mass of researchers, extension workers, and other key players in the rice seed industry and the national government have been educated on the various aspects of the technology during training courses held at IRRI and PhilRice, and the economic viability of hybrid rice cultivation and seed production have been studied and demonstrated. However, there is much to be done for hybrid rice technology to gain a solid foothold in Philippine rice agriculture. Challenges must be addressed to ensure that the increased yield levels attained in technology demonstration trials will be realized on farmers' rice fields leading to increased farm productivity and farmer-incomes. The development and use of hybrid rice technology in the Philippines provides a good example on how an international agricultural research centre and a national agricultural research system could jointly develop and benefit from a technology usable by the farmers for increasing rice yields.

SERVICE QUALITY OF COLEGIO DE SAN JUAN DE LETRAN, MANILA: ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY-MAKING

The objective of the study is to measure the relationship between and among the features of the educational services being provided by Letran-Manila vis. a vis. its tangible, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy features using a seven-point likert scale measuring both respondents’ expectations and perceptions. The respondents were 345 senior students across all programs of the College of Business Administration and Accountancy. They were randomly selected to answer the SERVQUAL questionnaire consisted of two parts. Data gathered from the first part seeks to measure the respondents’ expectations and perceptions of service quality provided by Letran were statistically treated by correlation analysis while data from part two utilized the statistical mean. Results of the study were; there was a weak relationship in the customer expectations and perceptions as far as tangibles are concerned. When the perceived tangibles were correlated with empathy resulted to a weak correlation. There was a weak relationship in the customer expectations and perceptions as far as reliability and tangibles are concerned. When the perceived reliability was correlated with the expected responsiveness and empathy, both got a 0.25 correlation, the lowest among the correlated results. The perceived responsiveness features of service quality were correlated with the expected responsiveness and assurance resulted to a moderate relationship. The expected responsiveness features when correlated with reliability, tangibility and empathy features, all implied a weak relationship. The correlation of perceived assurance with expected responsiveness, assurance and empathy resulted to a moderate relationship while the perceived assurance featured have weak correlated results for tangibles and reliability. Lastly, the empathy features of service quality got moderate correlation when responsiveness, assurance and empathy features.

EFFECTIVENESS OF PANTAWID PAMILYANG PILIPINO PROGRAM (4Ps) ON FILIPINA WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN BARANGAY 211, ZONE 19, LICO STREET, TONDO MANILA

Poverty is very widespread and rampant here in the Philippines. The people affected by this problem are the families living in extreme poverty since they cannot provide for the immediate needs of their family. Fortunately, there are social protection program such as Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) wherein it aims to reduce poverty, improve the health and education of citizens living in extreme poverty by providing cash grants which they can utilize for their immediate needs. The CCT program in the Philippines is called the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps). The beneficiaries are the ones who will benefit from the program and the most responsible person in the household shall be the head beneficiary of the program which is in most cases, the mother. In most countries abroad wherein CCT programs are also implemented, studies show that these programs have positive effects on women. No research has been done yet focusing on the effects of cash transfer programs on Filipina women. This research aims to analyze the effectiveness of 4Ps in Filipina women’s empowerment. In line with this objective, Jean Jacques Rousseau’s Social Contract Theory will be utilized in this study to further understand the connection of Filipina mother’s empowerment under Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program. The researcher will use a qualitative style of approach, descriptive method, narrative design and random sampling method. Data will be gathered through interview. The main participants of this research are Filipina Women Grantees, Department of Social Welfare and Development personnel, and Barangay Officials

CORRELATION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SELECTED ECONOMIC VARIABLES IN ASEAN REGION

Economic growth in each ASEAN member countries differ in terms of investment, consumption, oil prices and external demand. Likewise, potential growth is defined as the maximum rate of growth that the economy can achieve with macroeconomic stability. Growth slowed in 7 of the 10 ASEAN economies, edging down the sub-regional average to 4.4% in 2015. In the study, the government learned various factors that can be used for their policy development and improvement of infrastructure. The researchers determined how Infrastructure Spending, FDI, Employment Ratio and Foreign Aid affect the Economic Growth of the entire Southeast Asian economies. After performing several regression models, it emerged that only Infrastructure Spending was able to significantly predict and cause significant relationship with Economic Growth. More over the value of the R-square relates that 99.4% of the variations in Economic Growth are explained and accounted from Infrastructure Spending. This emphasizes and support theories in Development Economics that indeed, the presence of Infrastructure fuels business activities leading to economic growth. Secondary data pertaining to different economic variables such as growth rate, infrastructure, foreign aid direct investment and employment of ten ASEAN member countries were taken from Bloomberg and other government agencies. The proponents used 30 years as coverage of the study. The researchers utilized regression analysis and Markov for the analysis of data. The study also presented the forecasted values of the different variables of the ASEAN member countries.

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT, WORK ENGAGEMENT OF STEM TRACK PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS: A PROPOSED EMPLOYEE WELFARE PROGRAM

This descriptive-correlational study aimed to assess the occupational stress, organizational commitment and work engagement of teachers in public senior high schools in NCR offering STEM program. Frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations were used in presenting the descriptive statistics. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) for verifying factor structures, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis for testing differences, and Structural Equation Model (SEM) for determining the relationships of the latent variables were also utilized. The results revealed that teachers have moderate to high level of occupational stress. They also have high levels of organizational commitment and work engagement. Additionally, significant difference was found in the teachers’ level of occupational stress when they are grouped according to age generation and years of service. Significant difference was also found in their levels of organizational commitment according to years of service and in their levels of work engagement according to age. The results of Structural Equation Model revealed that negative correlations of occupational stress to organizational commitment and work engagement, and positive correlation between organizational commitment and work engagement are all significant. Aside from the contribution of the study to the body of knowledge, the results of the study will be significant to administrators and policy-makers for creating programs, activities, and policies that will help improve the teachers’ welfare.

MOTIVATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF TRAVEL BEHAVIOR OF TNVS COMMUTERS: BASIS OF A CIRCULAR FLOW OF SUSTAINABLE (TNVS) OPERATION

The study examined the influence of motivational dimensions of travel behavior on the satisfaction and patronage on TNVS use. Specifically, it evaluates the significant difference in the level of agreement of the non-student and student riders of TNVS on their motivational dimensions of travel behavior as well as their level of satisfaction on the TNVS quality. Data from 428 non-student and 449 student users of TNC were collected and processed using SPSS version 20 and WARP PLS version 5.0. The structural equation analysis reveals the following: (i) economic benefits positively affect satisfaction of the TNVS riders, (ii) perceived usefulness has a positive effect on the satisfaction of TNVS riders, (iii) trusts positively affect satisfaction of the riders, (iv) TNVS quality positively affects satisfaction of the TNVS rider, (v) satisfaction positively affects the patronage of the TNVS riders, and (vi) environmental impact has a negative effect on the satisfaction of the TNVS riders. The study has proven the influence of the four motivational dimensions on the satisfaction of the TNVS users, which would lead to patronage (increased utilization) of TNCs services.

MAKING DECENTRALIZATION WORK FOR THE POOR: SYNERGISCTIC COPRODUCTION OF HOUSING SERVICES FOR INFORMAL SETTLERS IN MANILA AND QUEZON CITY

It is the assumption of this study that under certain conditions incomplete decentralization can eventuate even in modest but important improvements in governance performance and outcomes. To appreciate how and why such experiences have taken place, it is essential to look into the dynamics of state-society nexus that underpins them. By devolving public authority and responsibility, the local can potentially become an arena where development-oriented local authoritative and societal actors could forge mutually-reinforcing relations to pursue common goals. The autonomy granted to local governments allows local governing authorities, particularly the entrepreneurial among them, to recognize the limits of their own governance capacities and appreciate the need of harnessing the organizational advantages of their non-state counterparts in order to overcome the gap between the demand- and supply sides of public service. In the same vein, local empowerment increases the incentives for non-state actors to actively engage local governments and enlist their full support to promote their own development and welfare agendas. In this kind of collaborative interaction, elements of both local government and society can find myriad opportunities to capacitate themselves by building on each other’s competencies, complementing each other’s strengths and compensating for each other’s weaknesses to capture and optimize the advantages and eschew the adverse tendencies of decentralization. The focus of current discussions on the technical and institutional requirements of decentralization has left this important aspect of the reform experience underexplored. There exists therefore a need to shed light on how and under what condition the collaborative interaction between development-oriented local government and societal actors can make decentralization, despite its inadequacies, realize its governance and developmental promises. The experiences of Manila and Quezon City with decentralized housing provision for the urban poor is a good starting point for an investigation regarding this matter

PRE-RETIREMENT ACTIVITIES OF SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS IN PALAWAN: BASIS FOR A PROPOSED PRE-RETIREMENT PROGRAM

The main objective of this study was to determine the pre-retirement activities of selected local government units in Palawan as basis for a proposed LGU pre-retirement program with the following specific objectives: identify the existing pre-retirement activities; factors that impede the implementation of pre-retirement activities; plans of pre-retirees prior to retirement; and suggestions of officials that can help meet the needs of pre-retirees in the LGU. Pre-retirement activities in LGUs existed based on the majority “yes” answers of all respondents; the respondents verbally interpreted as “agree” that factors like political, economic, social, and legal impedes the implementation of pre-retirement activities in the LGU; the pre-retirees were “well-planned” their financial, and spiritual activities; and their next priorities were health, social and psychological aspects; and lastly, the HR and elected officials similarly suggested the enactment of law in the national and local levels of the LGUs pre-retirement program. The conclusion and recommendation were the need to enact a law for LGU pre-retirement program in the national and local levels, and the LGU to initiate the formulation of well-defined and for properly implemented pre-retirement program in the LGUs.