Psychology

FACEBOOK EXPOSURE AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG SELECTED COLLEGE STUDENTS

The research aimed to study the relationship of exposure to Facebook and depressive symptoms among selected college students. With three hundred forty three (343) college students, the Beck Depression Inventory - a 21-item self-report instrument, measured depressive symptoms; and the Facebook Intensity Scale measured Facebook exposure. Results show that there is no significant relationship between depressive symptoms and Facebook Usage; Facebook Connection Strategies; Length of Time Spent on Facebook; and Number of Friends on Facebook.

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, ATTACHMENT STYLE AND LIVED EXPERIENCES OF FATHERS WITH CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

This descriptive study determined the emotional intelligence, attachment style, as well as the lived experiences of fathers of children with special needs. Specifically, the objectives of this research are the following: to ascertain the profile of fathers in relation to emotional intelligence and attachment style and to determine the experiences of father respondents in relation with their children with special needs. The researchers interviewed, administered psychological tests and questionnaires namely, the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short and the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire to five Filipino fathers who have children with special needs. The participants have at least one child with special needs like cerebral palsy, autism and ADHD. Based on the result of the study, most of the participants have low emotional intelligence and their attachment style is more likely to be vulnerable. The thematic analysis yielded three themes common among the participants’ lived experiences with their children namely financial difficulties, emotional difficulties and strategic coping. Implications, limitations and recommendations of this study are discussed.

LIVED EXPERIENCES AND SELF-WORTH OF SELECTED FILIPINOS WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES

The purpose of this study is to identify the self worth that the people with disabilities have and also to describe the experiences they have encountered. Using purposive sampling, ten Filipinos with physical disabilities from Tahanang Walang Hagdanan are selected as participants. In the selection of the informants, two requirements surfaced: they must be wheelchair bound and all are in their adulthood stage. The researchers used a self- designed questionnaire that is associated with the people with disabilities. It was found in the study that people in general play important roles in society including the people with disabilities. Their disability became a bridge for them to appreciate their lives more. In conclusion, people with disabilities believed that they are more likely to be perceived by able-bodied individuals as pitiful and somehow useless in the society, this perception caused people with disabilities to strive more in achieving something with their lives despite their disability.

IDENTITY FORMATION OF SELECTED FILIPINA BREADWINNERS

The study aimed to determine the self-identity of Filipina breadwinners and the role that the breadwinner position plays in the participants’ identity formation. Twelve Filipina breadwinners, the sole source of their family income, were the participants of the research. The Lovingness, Appreciativeness and Faithfulness (LAF) model of self-identity of the Filipina breadwinner was fashioned based on the findings from the interviews. The study found that single breadwinners are appreciative of the support that their family gave to them when they were younger, thus they want to repay their family by being the breadwinner. Moreover, married breadwinners showed their loving attribute towards their family by being breadwinners. Furthermore, single moms remained faithful to their self-identity in spite ofthe many problems and complications in their breadwinner role.

UNDERSTANDING THE COPING STRATEGIES OF SELECTED FILIPINOS VICTIMIZED BY TYPHOON ONDOY ACROSS LIFESPAN

This empirical phenomenological study aimed to identify and understand the coping strategies of selected Filipinos victimized by Typhoon Ondoy across lifespan. Specifically, this study intended to (a) determine the lived experiences of the participants pertinent to typhoon Ondoy, (b) identify the coping strategies of the participants, (c) establish an eidetic symbol of the study, and (d) differentiate the coping strategies of selected Filipinos across age groups. The researchers interviewed 15 participants from Marikina City who were victims of typhoon Ondoy. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. IPA yielded three themes common among participants' lived experiences - (a) Ondoy as a tragic incident, (b) Ondoy as an unusual encounter, and (c) Ondoy as a life changer. Results showed that Filipinos cope by (a) receiving social assistance which can be classified into two sub-themes namely - external aid and support from kin, (b) employing mitigative measures, and (c) turning to faith. Eidetic symbols of the study were also established. Conclusion and limitation are discussed.

DEATH OF A CHILD: GRIEF EXPERIENCES AND COPING MECHANISMS OF SELECTED FATHERS

The study examined the grief experiences of fathers related to the death of their child and how they coped with this loss. A total of eight fathers were interviewed and the results were analyzed through thematic content analysis. Results indicated that the father-participants experienced pain, acceptance and regret as a result of the loss of their child. It also showed that the fathers used two coping mechanisms: emotion-focused or avoidant coping and positive appraisal, to deal with their child’s death.

POSTMODERN FEMINISM: CONCEPT OF SELECTED FILIPINO WOMEN'S SELF-WORTH

This study had two intentions. First, it aimed to explore the context of Filipino women's self-worth by concentrating on how they view themselves as a woman. Second, this study was conducted to justify the idea of the “woman of worth” through a postmodern feminist perspective. Essentially, this study supported Covington's Self-worth Theory (2001). Its premise states that the worthiness of an individual is scaled in relation to the achievements he/she gets. This achievement however, does not only pertain to academic status, but also to the fulfilment one gets whenever she contributes for the purpose of success. It was significant that among the respondents, being able to contribute is the ultimate basis of their worth. Apart from their awareness on their own characteristics and on the roles that they play, affirmation from others also enables them to feel empowered as a woman.

UNDERSTANDING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL DYNAMICS OF SELECTED FILIPINO TRANSGENDER

The aim of this study was to understand the psychological dynamics and affective factors of ten (10) male-to-female (MTF) transgender living within Metro Manila. The study used multiple-qualitative and mixed-method case studies to fully understand each unique experiences of Filipino MTF transgender. Measures were three (3) psychological tests, an outcome survey and a formal interview. Among the ten (10) participants, two were enclosed to the idea that their sexual identity is female; the rest were psychologically affected by the acceptance of family and discrimination of society that made gay sons transcend to female appearance, more so being a transgender. Results indicated that transsexualism thoughts are being mediated by the affection of romantic relationship.

ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION AND ACHIEVEMENT GOAL ORIENTATION AS PREDICTORS OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED COLLEGE STUDENTS

The purpose of this study was to explore Active and Passive Procrastination in relation to Mastery-Approach, Mastery-Avoidance, Performance-Approach, Performance-Avoidance Goal Orientations. It wanted to determine which among these predict college students' academic school performance. Data were collected and analyzed from 30 undergraduates – comprised of 17 dean's listers and 13 probationary students – from the Colegio de San Juan de Letran, Manila. The results indicated that there is a significant relationship between Procrastination and Achievement Goal Orientation.The results also indicated that Procrastination was a predictor of student's Academic Performance (GWA) in school. Implications and future recommendations of this study are discussed.

LIVED EXPERIENCES OF BATTERED MOTHERS

This study aims to know the lived experiences of battered mothers, how they relate to their children, and respond to the maltreatment of their spouses. we used interpretative phenomenological analysis in analyzing the data. Through purposive sampling, 10 battered mothers, ages 32 to 52 were chosen to be participants in the study. We came up with five themes: sacrificing for their children, anger, sympathy in sorrow, physical pain, and active-passive responses. Mothers, although physically abused, have still shown their love for their children. Hence, they were characterized to be selfless as they can still care for their children despite being battered. They were characterized to be selfless, then. It was shown that they did not want to tolerate the abuse towards them, but their behavior of passively reacting and still staying in the relationship may display tolerance, because again, they were thinking of the their family and their children?s welfare.

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN DECISION-MAKING STYLES OF SELECTED BARANGAY OFFICIALS

A study on gender differences in decision-making style of barangay officials was conducted at Lubao, Pampanga. Twelve barangays were selected and the selected barangay officials in each locale were given a test to determine their decision-making styles. The constructs that were observed include rational, dependence, intuitive, avoidant, and spontaneous decision-making styles. A total of 80 participants composed of 40 males and 40 females, answered the questionnaires. The mean values were statistically analyzed using correlation, f-test, and t-test. The only significant difference was obtained on the dependence of the male and female in making decisions. It was observed that the female was more dependent on others when it comes to decision-making. There were no observed differences on other decision-making styles between males and females, suggesting sameness level of rationality, intuition, avoidance, and spontaneity.

UNDERSTANDING THE EXPERIENCES OF LOSS AMONG FILIPINO SUICIDE-BEREAVED PARENTS

Suicide is becoming a global phenomenon with the increasing cases, particularly among adolescents. With these occurrences, parents experience bereavement, left in state of grief and uncertainty. This study aimed to broaden the understanding of the lived experiences of parents who have lost a child through suicide. Eight (8) parents who have been suicide-bereaved for 2 to 5 years have participated through face-to-face interviews. After transcribing and categorizing the significant statements from the interview transcription, two essential themes emerged from the data: The Aftermath of Losing a Child and Experiencing the Meaning of Loss. These themes provide a deeper understanding of their experiences of loss, from the moment of losing their child, to after the incident, and the meaning of loss for them since the death of their child up to the present. These findings place emphasis on the grief process of suicide bereavement, as they continue life as a parent. Additionally, these themes provide a realization of the significance of this phenomenon from the parents‘ perspective.

THE MISTRESSES’ PERSPECTIVE: A DESCRIPTIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE EXPERIENCES IN EXTRAMARITAL RELATIONSHIPS OF FEMALE RELATIONSHIP TRANSGRESSORS

These days, transgressions are rampant in disrupting the stability of relationships. Previous studies have proven that relational transgressions are one of the main reasons why romantic relationships end. For us to understand these events, the study delves into the experiences in extramarital relationships of female relationship transgressors. This present research helps to inductively ascertain the experiences of the female relationship transgressors, that there may be benefit in understanding, analyzing and comprehending the motives of the female relationship transgressors. Using purposive sampling technique, eight (8) female relationship transgressors participated in the study. Certain findings were drawn indicating that these female relationship transgressors have encountered perceived fulfilling experience with the married men. Hence, the fulfillment of the female relationship transgressors' need to feel important, fulfillment of their idealized image and the mutual affection beyond transgression correspondingly answer the objectives of the study that is to explore and understand the motives of the female relationship transgressors on why they commit into extramarital relationships. The present study extends previous researches in relational transgressions and it explores in detail how the female relationship transgressors are making sense of their personal and social world.

THE POST TRAUMATIC GROWTH OF MALE NON-PARTICIPATING PARTNERS OF INFIDELITY

Infidelity causes damages that may result to tragedies such as breaking of families, divorce, physical violence, and emotional distress to the non-participating partner. This emotional distress may lead to destruction of the non-participating partner’s self-esteem, self-worth, and feel overwhelming emotions like guilt and rejection. Hence, this traumatic experience of infidelity may also end up positively for the non-participating partner. The emotional distress may become a source of positive psychological changes or posttraumatic growth (PTG). Thus, this PTG of non-participating partners may change their perspective toward their negative experience from infidelity. With this, the study aims to describe the posttraumatic growth of the male non-participating partners through their lived experiences in the aftermath of the traumatic incident, infidelity. This paper also included the factors that contributed to the growth of the male non-participating partners who experienced infidelity. Using purposive sampling, the data were collected through one-on-one interviews with the eight participants using semi-structured interview questions. The data gathered were analyzed using thematic analysis which is usually used in qualitative researches for identifying, analyzing, and reporting of the themes or patterns of the data.

THE MEDIATING ROLE OF POST TRAUMATIC GROWTH IN PREDICTING GENERALIZED GRATITUDE OF RESILIENT PWDS

Disability affects the daily living of an individual including relationship, school and work. Psychological health of a person with disability can affect their perception or experience of disability. The question in this study is if PWD’s still experience generalized gratitude despite of their status in life as PWD. The study investigated the Mediating role of Posttraumatic growth in predicting generalized gratitude of resilient PWDS. In the context of the present study, resilience is experienced after a negative incident in the individual‘s life. This becomes a spring board for the understanding the process of experiencing gratitude through resilience. The researchers have two hypotheses in the study; first is resilience predicts generalized gratitude and the second is posttraumatic growth mediates the relationship of resilience and generalized gratitude. Mediation analysis was used in understanding the relationship of resilience and gratitude. Seventy-eight people who have acquired disability participated in the study. Twenty-three (23) participants were gathered from Bahay Biyaya and 45 participants were from Tahanang Walang Hagdanan Inc., 1 from Sinag Tala and 9 respondents were not associated with any foundation. The respondents were asked to complete the questionnaire that contains the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), followed by the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), and then finally the GQ-6 Short Form (GQ-6). Results show that resilience does predict gratitude and PTG does mediate the relationship of the two. Thus, supporting the hypotheses, the present study shows that resilience does affect the PWDs feeling grateful despite their negative experiences. Resilience is not the only thing that keeps them feel grateful but also growth and finding meaning to their experiences following disability. This proves theoretically that the Dynamic Model of Adjustment of Individuals Living with Chronic Disease or Disability how Filipino PWD’s shows gratitude after traumatic experience.

PEER RELATIONSHIP AND ITS EFFECT ON LGBT’S MOTIVATION AND WORK PERFORMANCE IN XYZ BPO COMPANY

Employees spend their time a lot in their organization than their homes, it is important that their relationship to their colleagues should be in a positive way as possible despite of their sexual identity to have a harmonious working environment. The objectives of this study are. 1) To identify the relationship between peer relationship and motivation among employees of XYZ BPO company.2) To determine the relationship between peer relationship and work performance. Based on the responses gathered from 150 LGBT employees, there is a significant relationship between peer relationship and work performance but it is quite low with the average of (r= .490). Meanwhile, Peer Relationship has a signifi- cant relationship to motivation with the average of (r=537).

ANG EKSPLORASYON NG MGA KONSEPTO NG DANGAL AT PURI BATAY SA PANANAW NG MGA PILIPINO

Layunin: Ang pananaliksik na ito ay gumamit ng qualitative approach upang malaman ang malinaw na kaugnayan ng mga konsepto ng dangal at puri. Metodo: 140 Pilipino na may edad 18 at pataas ang naging kalahok ng pag-aaral na ito. Ang 128 ay sumagot ng Thought Listing Questionnaire habang ang 12 naman ay sumailalim sa Ginabayang Talakayan. Ang audio recording ng ginabayang talakayan ay itinala at ginamitan ng tematikong pagsusuri. Lagom: Tatlong pangunahing tema ang umusbong para sa dangal, dalawa para sa puri at isang pangunahing tema para sa integrasyon ng dalawa. Sa dangal, napag-alamang malaki ang nagiging kontribusyon ng mga pamantayan sa lipunan habang ang sa puri naman ay kasarian na parehong hinubog ng kulturang kinagisnan sa Pilipinas. Bukod pa roon, ang pagkakaroon ng antas ng dangal, puri at digni- dad ay lumitaw din. Puri ang tinukoy na nasa pinaka panlabas habang ang dignidad ang nasa pinaka-panloob. Ang dangal ay nagsisilbing tagapamagitan ng dalawang naunang konsepto. Parehong naaapektuhan ng panlabas na salik ang puri at dangal ngunit sa usapin ng dangal, nakasalalay pa rin sa tao kung paano niya ipoproseso ang pananaw ng ibang tao habang ang sa puri ay tuwirang kontrolado ng ibang tao. Ang dignidad ang lumabas na nasa pinakaloob ng isang indibidwal kung saan tanging ang sarili lamang ang maaaring makaapekto nito.

AM I GOOD ENOUGH?: SELF-WORTH AMONG URBAN-BASED FISHERMEN; A PHENOMENOLOGICAL

Self-worth is widely discussed momentarily in different domains. This study aims to know the involvement of environment specifically in fulfilling with the presence of trials, judgments, achievements that will serve as encouragement in gaining self-worth of fishermen. For good meas- ure and profound understanding about self-worth, researchers conducted a semi-structured interview. Findings suggest through descriptive phe- nomenology that there are levels in achieving the self-worth of fishermen such as self-advocacy wherein they develop their individuality. Followed by self-identity in which they recognize their selves with the influence of others and lastly, self-actualization where they feel valued by achieving something that will give them satisfaction. It was determined that achieving and providing for their family are something that a fishermen’s self- worth measures. Briefly, the research conducted can not only aid forthcoming researchers interested in the field of self-worth but also providing a fill in the gap of knowledge in this phenomenon.

EMOTION DYSREGULATIONS AS MEDIATOR ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF PERFECTIONISM AND SUICIDAL DESIRE

Suicide cases have been prevalent in college students nowadays. The high standards placed upon them by society or themselves contribute to an individual’s suicidal desire. Perfectionists tend to have deficits in emotion regulation and emotionally dysregulated individuals have higher risks for suicidal desire. This study provides an analysis and evaluation of how emotion dysregulation mediates the relationship of perfectionism and suicidal desire. A survey was conducted among 200 college students. Mediation analysis using Model 4 of the Conditional Process Analysis by Hayes and Sobel test was used to analyze the data. Results of the data show that all relationships are significant. In particular, perfectionism was found to be a predictor of suicidal desire. Moreover, emotion dysregulation partially mediates between perfectionism and suicidal desire. The study finds that college students have high standards for themselves and failure to achieve these may lead to suicidal desire. The study also finds that college students do not regulate their emotions well when not meeting their standards which may lead to a person’s suicidal desire.

THE QUALITY WORLD OF INSTITUTIONALIZED ELDERLIES

This phenomenological study explored the Quality World of the elderlies living inside an institution called institutionalized elderlies. In Choice Theory, Quality World is part of the Perceived World and it is described as "personal picture album" of all the people, things, ideas, and ideals that individuals have discovered increase the quality of their lives, to fulfill a person’s needs. Basic Human Needs are the general motivation for all behavior of human, the Quality World is the specific motivation. The Basic Human Needs describe what people need, the Quality World pictures detail how people meet those needs. Seven institutionalized elderlies were purposively recruited. Interview proceedings and interpretation of drawings were tape-recorded and were later on transcribed. Transcribed data was categorized and the matised into four thematic levels of the institutionalized elderlies Quality World. Findings of this study will be helpful in giving valuable inputs in the psychological utility of elderly’s needs and wants using the lens of Choice Theory. Also, for the care providers and health professionals in the institution in providing a better assistance for the institutionalized elderlies.

THE USE OF MULTIMEDIA IN THE TERTIARY CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION: THE COLEGIO DE SAN JUAN DE LETRAN - INTRAMUROS, MANILA EXPERIENCE

This study examined the perception of the academic community of Colegio de San Juan de Letran in the use of multimedia presentation in classroom instruction. In particular, this research focused on the use of overhead projectors, LCD, and computers in the presentation of lessons and discussions of teachers in the collegiate level. Five hundred and seventy six (576) college students, twenty seven (27) professors, and nine (9) area chairpersons responded on the researcher-made questionnaire, measuring their perception towards the use of multimedia in the classroom. The measurement covered the preparation of materials, implementation, interaction, learning motivation, and learning outcome. One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences on the perception of the groups of respondents in the use of multimedia in the classroom.

PERSONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SEPARATED COUPLES’ ADOLESCENT CHILDREN: A BASIS FOR A PROPOSED PROACTIVE VALUES PROGRAM

The study examined the personal and psychological profile of adolescent children of separated couples. In particular, the research determined the differences in the said variables when respondents were grouped according to age, gender, grade-point average, custodial parent, length of parental separation and status of custodial parent. Sixty-eight (68) high school students, who were purposively chosen after an initial survey of the marital status of their parents, were the respondents of the study. Significant differences in the following: (1) the areas of warmth, intelligence, conformity apprehension and extraversion and adolescents’ age, (2) anxiety and gender; (3) conformity and grade-point average; (4);withdrawal and custodial parents (5) withdrawal, self-sufficiency, anxiety and length of parental separation (6) investing in close friends and age ; (7) developing social support, seeking spiritual support seeking professional support, relaxing and gender; (8) seeking diversion, being humorous and grade- point average; (9) being humorous and length of parental separation. Findings of this study became the basis for the development of a proposed proactive values program.

THE EXPERIENCES AND SEARCH FOR MEANING IN A POVERTY-STRICKEN COMMUNITY IN CAVITE: BASIS FOR A LIFE ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM

The study describes the different ordeals being experienced by ten individuals from the same “walk of life” due to extreme poverty. The criterion for choosing the respondents was based on description of poverty as material deprivation. In order to determine the poorest families living the area, a survey on socio-economic status was administered among residents of Barangay 10-B Kingfisher, Bacoor Bay Sta. Cruz, Cavite City. The result of the survey became the basis for choosing the ten co-researchers. This study employed the qualitative-phenomenological research design, which centered on the combination of existential and transcendental phenomenology, where both the lived experience and meaning of the experience are interchangeably observed, described and analyzed. Through both empirical and reflective methods, it probed into disclosing the lived experience of the ten samples of the household population suffering from extreme poverty.

PERCEPTION ON PREMARITAL SEX AS CORRELATE TO ADOLESCENTS’ CONCEPT OF MARRIAGE

The primary objective of this study is to determine if perception on premarital sex is correlated with adolescents’ concept of marriage. It also aimed to find out opinion of young individuals on reasons adolescents engage in premarital sex and cohabitation. A survey instrument designed specifically for this study was administered to randomly selected students of one institution in Metro Manila enrolled in the Summer of School Year 2008-2009. Student t-test and One- way ANOVA revealed significant differences on the perception on premarital sex and cohabitation when grouped according to demographic variables while Chi-square test for dependence showed concept of marriage was correlated with attitude on premarital sex but not with cohabitation.

Assessment of the immunomodulatory effect of commercially available green barley extract on juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn.) assessed in vivo

Aquaculture is an in-demand industry that constantly needs to maintain and sustain animals to meet the production demand. Although there are antibiotics available to possibly increase the health status particularly in fish, the use of plant extracts as dietary additive or supplements may be used as a cost effective and probably cheaper way of maintaining fish health. In this study, the possible effect of commercially available green barley as a supplement on the immune system of Nile tilapia was assessed by quantitative melano-macrophage center analysis. Results show that there is a significant decrease in the area occupied by MMC upon addition of 500mg green barley extract on fish feeds compared to the control (p=0.013). The results suggest that green barley extract at 500mg dose may have immunomodulatory capacity and may be used to increase health in Nile tilapia juveniles.

BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS OF TREATMENT-SEEKING: CASE STUDIES OF FILIPINO ACTIVE DUTY SOLDIERS DIAGNOSED WITH COMBAT-RELATED PTSD

Military personnel face mental health challenges as they are continually deployed, and oftentimes engage in actual combats. One mental health diagnosis identified from soldiers, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), has escalated along with their deployment. But albeit many soldiers suffer from mental health problems, only few seek treatment. This is disturbing, because acquiring treatment is necessary for a healthy and effective workforce. To this end, studies investigated barriers and facilitators of mental health treatment- seeking, but those studies had limitations. Using a case study design, this study aims to investigate on the mental health treatment-seeking barriers and facilitators of three Filipino active duty soldiers diagnosed with combat-related PTSD. It employed data triangulation of multiple data sources from all the interviews with the participants, participants’ significant others, attending nurses, and resident psychiatrist. Findings reveal two mental health treatment-seeking barriers of the participants: (a) belief about health care personnel and (b) stigma. Meanwhile, the participants’ mental health treatment-seeking facilitators are as follows: (a) recognition of PTSD symptoms’ severity, (b) desire to regain former self, and (c) social support. Discussion on these findings and implications for practice are provided.

LOVE THY NEIGHBOUR: EXPLORING THE EXPERIENCE OF INDIVIDUALS IN POLYAMOROUS RELATIONSHIP

With the continuous expansion of the internet, people are seeking for different kinds of intimate relationships This includes the relationship form called polyamory, a relationship structure that allows the people involved to have multiple partners, consensual and honest relationship. It is distinguished from other forms of nonmonogamous relationships (i.e. cheating or infidelity, swinging, and polygamy). Thus, leading the researchers to provide a study regarding its existence despite conducting it in a highly monogamous culture particularly in the Philippines and combined with the scarcity of local literature. The researchers sought to provide a definition of polyamory in the Philippines through the lived experience of the participants in the study. The researchers have interviewed 5 individuals who are currently engaged in a polyamorous set-up. The analysis resulted to 2 themes relating to how their lived experience can typify polyamory in the Philippines. The participants describe it as being in a relationship formed with consent, honesty, and commitment that could vary in the set-up of the people involved in it. These variations could include having partners who are romantic, sexual, and platonic, polyamorous, monogamous etc.